Monograph 'Heavenly manna' ...

(Wycliffe) gen1:29 "And God seide, Lo! Y haue youe to you ech eerbe berynge seed on erthe, ..."
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dedicated to my friend Bjorn Johan Andresen
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Author - Poltavsky Sasha. Russia. Stavropol Reg., Andropovsky county, village Kursavka

I beg people for the sake of knowledge, to whom English is native, just to check this article for childish errors :) 
One thing I can do - to put your names in "Thanks". I zeal to make this readable to wide English-speaking world.
Please send me the report about errors to or Thanks, Sasha Poltavsky.

Abstract: In response to the question 'what is the biblical manna?’ I had to come across numerous circumstances of its acquisition. The found quotes in the book of leading Israeli archaeologists state that the great events of the Bible never actually took place on the grounds of contemporary Palestine, Egypt and elsewhere near. When and where it all happened is clarified by the quotations of the Soviet historian books.
     The examples of more than 50 bibles of different epochs and nations have shown that one cannot read the official Bible without drawing parallels to the ancient ones. With a simple calculation it was found out that actual number of manna eaters was only 3 400 people instead of proposed 3 400 000. Much attention is paid to the circumstances of the calendar. The mass murder of Egyptians on the night of the Exodus was committed treacherously in the sacred Sabbath Year and Sabbath Day. In the study of temperature circumstances of Exodus, great attention is paid to analysis of the passage when Jews were crossing the sea on ice.
     It became clear that driven out by the volcanic winter to the seaboards warm, the Jews had to eat anything that comes to hand, including soaked and then sprouted seeds of various cultural and wild grasses: fescue, wheatgrass, mannic (Glyceria), etc., i.e. 'manna'. They ate other food. Jews invaded Palestine only after decades, on the sacred for them 'anniversary of anniversaries' year. Since then, the Jews began to live on the fertile lands and engaged themselves in farming; they stopped eating 'manna' and moved to cultivated cereals. 2.5 tribe of Jews remained to live in 'Desert' rich in cereal grasses.
     The myth of the manna falling from the sky was created to cover the marauding lifestyle and feeding with bestial forage. Other versions of manna are untenable: juices of plants are not balanced for long nutrition, lichens are toxic, the ice is not nutritious, wonderful version contradicts to the Bible text. Of course, I am sorry to part with the fairy tale, but deeply known the truth is much more wonderful with its unusual unlikeness and beautiful harmony of life.
   The book contains recipes for homemade manna, from biblical to modern.
    It is not recommended to children and dogmatic believers.

marked text - translated by professional translators
(BibleUnearthed) - this source presented in original English

Monograph. №1. ' The 10 plagues of Egypt ' - is a volcanic winter. ->
Monograph №2. Manna is soaked & sprouted grain (this page)

Content : 

1. Introduction :
- Text of the "official" Bible
- Time and geographical circumstances
- Catastrophic circumstances

2. My reconstruction :
- Calendar circumstances
- Temperature circumstances
- The Egyptian leaven and Sabbath
- Amount of people     (horses, cattle ...)
- Grain - Jews've got it.
- 40 years in wilderness, as in circles - a myth!
- 40 years in wilderness ate only manna - a myth!     (altar)
- Quails - the possible factor of manna's 'occurrence'
- Manna's - appearance
- 'Rained by' ...
- Sabbath
- A malt = manna

- Bread from sprouted grain - recipes.
- Dew
- Jews knew malt and drank beer (siker)
- Word etymology 'manna'
- Worms and disinfection
- Indicative miraclening

3. Other versions of manna :
- Tamarisk-tree 'sap'
- Ash-tree sap
- Ice
- Lichen
- Glyceria
- Magic mushroom
- A miracle

4. The conclusion

Appendices :
1. Sources
2. Symbols
3. Thanks
4. A forum for exchange of opinions




to content   In Exodus, the Jews left the Egyptian city of supplies Rameses, having taken supply items (meat, dough, flour, grain, oil, etc). The first time manna appeared to them, was when the flour had run out, but grain was still available. In Biblical texts, forty years of manna 'appears' during working day, with no manna appearing on the Sabbath. Having eliminated, what I believe to be all contradictions, I have come to the conclusion that manna is sprouted grain. While wandering in the wilderness for forty years, they grazed their cattle, obtained bread (lev2:1...), plundered the population (for exp. num21:21-25)and, sometimes, bought meal (dt2:6). Dry grain is good for campaigns, it can be stored for long periods. When there is no possibility to grind and prepare, sprouted grain becomes an unique 'bread'. At soaking it becomes soft, sprouts, and turns into a balanced nutritious meal (--). The biblical text excepted from miracles give as this version. Other versions, including ' wonderful version', not co-ordinated with Bible, groundless.

About the text of the 'official' bible and sources.

 to content  

     First, I would like to show you whether you can unconditionally trust texts of the 'official' Bible. Originals of biblical texts did not come to the present time. They were originally composed and copied without vowels, for example – xmpl, and later that served as a source of errors in vocalism, not to mention errors during transcribing or deliberate distortions of the text. Several generations of Masorets (Heb. 'Masora' means a legend, a tradition) have filled up the Bible with vowels and canonized it in Hebrew. The resulting text was declared sacred, where a letter cannot be changed, and errors that were noticed later were marked on fields without touching the text with a mark 'Qeri' that means 'read' with directions on correct reading. There are 1000 'official' Qeris in the Bible altogether including 54 in the book of Job.

     Mass printing began in the 15th century. It was like an invention of atomic bomb - the world has changed. Ability to fight through books appeared. Word is the most powerful weapon - look at modern propaganda. This triggered long-term wars. It was the era of Reformation. Old books were burned during decades; new re-edited books were printed. Only the Council of Trent had performed it during 18 years with interruptions beginning from 1545. The Bible was so 'edited' that the meaning has been changed here and there to the opposite. Restoration of the text original meaning is possible to perform bit by bit by comparing dozens of ancient books. It seems so wild to 'believers' that they even refuse to check the result. The first complete canonical Bibles appeared among the Slavs in the 16th century. The New Testament in the orthodox Kormchaia Kniga - the church canonical book of 1620 - had consisted of several times more books than they are today. The Orthodox Christians were not allowed to have and read the Old Testament. Psalms, Gospels collected in special books were permitted for households. Pope Gregory IX in 1231 with his bull banned Catholics to have and read Bible, to have it in hands and read it was allowed only with Pope bull in 1965 (in detail (NC.BIBL-1) Chapter 2)

     I'll show degree of perversity of the text of the "official" Bible on an example of the Book of Job. Notability of the Book of Job that is a poem written with use of a refrain - i.e. repetition of lines in other words, but with the same sense. Thus it is possible to restore sense of one verse alternate vowels by it's pair. Professor Moses Iosifovich Rizhsky in monography (Rizhsky.Job) detaily assorts distortions of Russian official version of Bible (RST).

Here few examples of a divergence of the text of the "official" Synodal Bible and the Hebrew original :

Sinodal version (RST)

Rizhsky restored version

job6:14 ..., if only he has not left fear of the Almighty.: ..., Though he before Shaddaem would cast away fear:
job7:20 ... I became a burden to myself? ... I became a burden to you?
job9:8 ... treadeth upon the waves of the sea; ... treadeth upon the waves of the clouds.
job9:35 ... I not such is in myself. ... He (God) is not that with me, (as should).
job13:15 ... but I'll hope; ... but I'll not hope;
job24:14 The murderer rising with the light ... The murderer rising with the gloom ...

... etc. The sense of Bible is deformed untill to the contrary, less striking distortions here and thee almost in every second line, take a look in (Rizhsky.Job) comparison with (RST).

     After acquaintance with prof. Rizhsky's monography comes understanding that "official" Bible (RST) impossible to read without thinking about the sources closer to original. Its sense deformed to nonsense often or changes to another, sometimes even opposite sense.

     The Septuagint (LXX) (in Greek) from which (Vulgate) in Latin translated , is presented by "Vatican", "Sinai", "Alexandria" codexes, and others manuscripts, as 'originals'. Their history is traced since 'typography time', since growth of forgeries 'under an antiquity'. At compilation of the synodal version of Bible (RST), that's 'official' for Russian orthodox christians, translation from the massorites texts was made 'under direction of the Septuagint' of the Leipzig publishing house of 1697. The synodal translation which is considered till now as the official Bible of Russian Orthodox Church, completely has been published in 1876.

The most authoritative representative of Massorite texts ' the Leningrad codex ' - (WTT) inclines to 'official' mass versions:

'official' (RST)

'the Leningrad codex' (WTT)

Septuagint (LXX)

Others sources

job24:14 The murderer rising with the light ... , and in the night is as a thief.
ל+א֡וֹר יָ֨ק֤וּם רוֹצֵ֗חַ יִֽקְטָל־+עָנִ֥י וְ+אֶבְי֑וֹן וּ֜+בַ+לַּ֗יְלָה יְהִ֣י כַ+גַּנָּֽב׃ (To light there is a murderer to kill the poor man and the beggar and in night becomes the thief ) γνους δε αυτων τα εργα παρεδωκεν αυτους εις σκοτος (In a gloom ) και νυκτος εσται ως κλεπτης (Rizhsky.Job) The murderer rising with the gloom ... , and in the night is as a thief.
ис9:8 The word is sent by the Lord on James, and it descends on Israel, דָּבָ֛ר שָׁלַ֥ח אֲדֹנָ֖י בְּ+יַעֲקֹ֑ב וְ+נָפַ֖ל בְּ+יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ( The word is sent by the Lord on James, falls on Israel. )
θανατον (death) απεστειλεν κυριος επι ιακωβ και ηλθεν επι ισραηλ (AB) The Lord has sent death upon Jacob, and it has come upon Israel.

     etc... Note for English-speaking: translating in places made word by word!

    Probably, the codexes faked in Middle Ages, made on the basis of canonical printed text. In the ancient time was not mass media (the Internet, television, DVD, radio, newspapers, etc...) - basic information passed by books... ' the Rare book ' was estimated in an estate. Forged under an antiquity, the book should not raise the doubts in 'authenticity' and, to be recognised, its text should not be frankly heretical... Now it is impossible to find out an origin of these manuscripts, and they are dated basically on style of a writing of letters...

     The modern biblical textual criticism does not see the original in the unique saved Hebrew text. Relations between (WTT) and (LXX) are considered by the most authoritative textual critics as relations between two independent text types which go back to one original, but cannot be identified with it.

     In 1947-1956 in the Palestinian place of Qumran, in several mountain caves, near to northwest coast of the Dead Sea, ~900 rolls on parchment and the papyrus have been found. 30 % from them contain biblical texts. By different estimations they are supposed that these texts have been written from III century BC till times of Crusades. I cannot quite trust available alternate of translation of Qumranian rolls. For example, ' Big Qumranian scroll of The book of Isaiah ', altered by Fred Miller, for some reason conveys meaning of late translations, for example, (1Q Isa) 9:8 "The Lord has sent a word on James and it has fallen on Israel - in the Septuagint (LXX) mentioned 'death', and in later treatments 'word'. These words without altering are written equally, ' דבר ' - ' dbr '. A choice (deber - death) or (dabar - a word) be left for the translator.

     Critically having looked at written sources, it would be dishonest not to mention a drama problem of their time and geographical application. Today's scientific world has broken up into two militant camps. The inhabitant does not know that in the scientific world there is a continuous ideological war, them are protected from it by ignorance and indifference. As well as always, their's world-view will form out by defeated ' hieratic ' elite. In a question of manna the time, the place and the catastrophic circumstances of events ( The 10 plagues Egypt ' ->) have fundamental value.

About time and geographical circumstances.

to content     Authoritative Israeli scientists, the dean of faculty of archeology at capital Tel-Aviv university - Israel Finkelstein and Nile Asher Zilberman in the book (BibleUnearthed)"Unearthed Bible" Israel Finkelstein «The Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts», have come to conclusion that in territories of Palestin, Egypt and anywhere nearby there are no powerful proofs of existence of the Jewish patriarchs, a great kingdom Israel, scale Exodus from Egypt, conquests ' the promised land ' Palestin etc. … the earth of region, results obstinately bears to this 70 years scientific excavation and researches.

      "Chapter Prologue. Archaeology and the Bible ... The search has centered on a tiny land, hemmed in on two sides by desert and on one side by the Mediterranean, that has, over the millennia, been plagued by recurrent drought and almost continual warfare. Its cities and population were minuscule in comparison to those of the neighboring empires of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Likewise, its material culture was poor in comparison to the splendor and extravagance of theirs. ...

      Chapter 6. One State, One Nation, One People? (c. 930—720 BCE) As we have seen, there is no compelling archaeological evidence for the historical existence of a vast united monarchy, centered in Jerusalem, that encompassed the entire land of Israel. ... ... In the tenth and ninth centuries ВСЕ, Judah was still very thinly inhabited, with a limited number of small villages, in fact not much more than twenty or so. ... ".

      Scientists admit that the modern archeology more recently became quite scientific in Israel, " ... By the 1970s, however, new trends began to influence the conduct of biblical archaeology and eventually to change its major focus and completely reverse the traditional relationship between artifact and biblical text. For the first time, archaeologists working in the lands of the Bible did not seek to use excavated finds as illustrations of the Bible; ...";

"Chapter 1. Searching for the Patriarchs. ... Many of the early biblical archaeologists had been trained as clerics or theologians. ...". Though authors kicked out from that scientists arranging archeology to the Bible, assert that the earth does not confirm Great biblical events, insist that the Bible has been created on this earth, "... in the seventh century ВСЕ. The saga of Israel's Exodus from Egypt is neither historical truth nor literary fiction. It is a powerful expression of memory and hope born in a world in the midst of change. ... Passover proves to be not a single event but a continuing experience of national resistance against the powers that be."  The Israeli scientists cannot take away the Bible, an ideological source of their rights to present Palestin from Jews. On the other hand to hold back archaeological results they cannot any more. Here also try to explain absence of archaeological confirmations of the Bible in region, literary character of Annals.

      Respecting authors as high archeologists I with suspicion concern logicality of their some conclusions, for example, "Perhaps the proto-Israelites stopped eating pork merely because the surrounding peoples - their adversaries - did eat it, ..." And still, their book contains the valuable scientific data and if to be released from attempts of authors all the same to illustrate archeology with the Bible, the book, by a principle ' absence of result - too result ', arms is quite proved and impartially to look at circumstances of Exodus and manna.

     The honorary academician of the USSR Morozov N.A. (1854-1946), in (Morozov. The Christ) has assumed that some books of the Old testament, describe the events occurring in Italy, instead of in modern Palestin. The analysis not altered vowels place names of a judaic canon has shown that many place names of the books Exodus and Joshua almost coincide with the Italian place names till now existing in Italy. Within the limits of this hypothesis the volcanic phenomena described in the Bible which can be connected with the Italian volcanoes Etna and Vesuvius.

     Authoritative Russian scientific co-authors Nosovsky G.V. and Fomenko A.T., it is rather critical Bibles concerning the text, respond about Bible with the big respect than the Israeli scientists - archeologists, and show that the Bible occurred not in region of present Palestin and Egypt and not thousand years ago, and relatively recently.

    (NC.Egypt-2) "Chapter 8.... The ancient Egyptian history was developed not before thousand years B.C. as Egyptologists think, but during epoch X-XVI of centuries AD Huge Egyptian temples and pyramids have been constructed, most likely, not earlier than XIV century of our era. The dates which have been written down on zodiacs in these temples point to XII-XV to centuries. But it does not mean that temples with zodiacs have been constructed in those dates which are ciphered on these zodiacs. Most likely, they have been constructed much later."

    The Dendera zodiac - a bas-relief which was settling up on a ceiling of one of premises of a temple of Hathor in Dendere I will explain, why datings of zodiacs can be trusted quite. Probably, you consider that the horoscope is a certain drawing for guessings … in a horoscope (gr. ωροσκόπιο - «observing time») sketched a real arrangement of planets in zodiac's constellations, in the form of figures or more simple symbols, for any certain moment, for example, at births and guessed on them. To think out an arrangement of planets there is no sense, the customer could look at the sky and convict the astrologist... If thought out, already in a guessing.

     To calculate positions of planets in the remote past and the future ancient without computers had no possibility. Calculating, planets can «be turned off in the past», to find day, hour, minutes when their arrangement was same, as on a horoscope sketch. 7 planets: the Sun, the Moon, a Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn (and earlier the Sun and the Moon ranked as planets) - turn, as 7 arrows of the high-precision astronomical clock which is not dependent on calendars, systems of notations and a policy... The Space agency of NASA (USA) estimates immutability of periodicity of rotation of planets in ten thousand years, and such planets, as Jupiter and Saturn, in ten millions years. If to the horoscope description the eclipse, touching or a covering of one heavenly body is added by another to calculate time of drawing up of a horoscope it is possible to within day, hours and even minutes. Combinations of planets in constellations repeat on the average ~ time per 1500, and taking into account non-uniformity of series of times 7... 10 thousand years. The History known to us not so is long, and horoscopes confidently find the historical period. Implicit they stored the dates in secret and have avoided mass fakes and destruction. Fortunately, these reliable «time stamps» were reached to us in an immutable kind. However historians try not to deal with horoscopes. From it there is a lot of problems. For example, contrary to all all horoscopes of Egypt specify to "historical theories» on 9-18 a century of our era, and the majority of them for 13 centuries of our era.

     You can find out date of any horoscope or, to the contrary, to make own, using free astroprocessor ZET (to download the free version on Though this program also is created for astrologists, nevertheless, is the high-precision astronomical processor based on ephemeris of agency of NASA and carries out many scientific functions.

     (NC.CHRON6) Chapter 4, "... According to new chronology, the conquest of such scale, most likely, is event of epoch XIV-XV of centuries.... Modern editions of antiquated books concern, apparently, epoch XVI-XVII of centuries, that is more than in hundred years after Ottoman's=Ataman's conquests. And the canon of the Bible in its modern kind has arisen not earlier than second half XVI century as a result of purposeful selection, considerable editing and sewing together in one book of some (by the way, very small) shares of all biblical texts existing at that time in huge number is strong different variants.... The bible names even a campaign date started: 430 year. Naturally, not ' advanced in years AD ', and counting term from a certain ancient moment of coming of their ancestors to Egypt.... From what time 430 years actually are counted? Most likely, semilegendary ' the coming of ancestors to Egypt ' was any really ancient event. According to new chronology, the most ancient event about which memoirs in written sources could be saved, events of XI century are. Therefore as the earliest possible date 1000 AD could act..., chroniclers really chose this year as a reference mark of years. In that case armies of the Moses have acted in a campaign approximately in 1430."

     (NC.CHRON6) Chapter 4, ".... popular editions and guidebooks, of course, draw an iridescent and serene picture more or less full conformity between biblical descriptions both the real archaeological and geographical data in these parts. The modern tourist driving across Palestin, it is valid ' will see ', - yours faithfully examining from a bus window road boards-indexes, - for example, ' ancient ' the biblical city of Jericho in one of local Arabian small villages. Hardly he will have a question - where huge stone walls of this ancient city about which so it is much told in the Bible have got to. And if will arise, to him at once will confidently answer: as, walls were, but have failed from a sound of pipes of Joshua Navin. Therefore also is not present today from them the slightest trace. Have taken away them to last stone. What here it is possible to mind? Jericho - at all not an exception. On the contrary, it's only one of examples of certain general of enough curious situation."

... Unfortunately, desire ' to prove ' the Bible many works accessible to the average reader are got.... Not without reason today's pilgrims to modern Jerusalem and Palestin, hoping to see original traces of biblical history, often come back with disappointment and bewilderment. ..." (ce)

    The Israeli archeologists are urged to admit with that, (BibleUnearthed) p.88 "Chapter 3. The Conquest o f Canaan ... As with the Exodus story, archaeology has uncovered a dramatic discrepancy between the Bible and the situation within Canaan at the suggested date of the conquest, ... the evidence on the general political and military landscape of Canaan suggests that a lightning invasion by this group would have been impractical and unlikely in the extreme.. ...

... Canaan was an Egyptian province, ... Egyptian garrisons were stationed at key sites throughout the country, ... The typical city had only .... But there were no city walls. The formidable Canaanite cities described in the conquest narrative were not protected by fortifications! ... ... Thus the famous scene of the Israelite forces marching around the- failed town with the Ark of the Covenant, causing Jericho's mighty walls to collapse by the blowing of their war trumpets was, to put it simply, a romantic mirage. ... One demonstration of the small scale of this society is the request in one of the Amarna letters sent by the king of Jerusalem to the pharaoh that he supply fifty men 'to protect
the land.' ... Something clearly doesn't add up when the biblical account, the archaeological evidence, and the Egyptian records are placed side by side.

... And what about the saga of the Gibeonites with their pleading for protection? ...: picture: at none of the sites were there any Late Bronze Age remains. The same holds true for other towns mentioned in the conquest narrative and in the summary list of the kings of Canaan (Joshua 12). .... Passionate explanations and complex rationalizations were not long in coming, because there was so much at stake. ... In the case of Jericho, some scholars sought environmental explanations. They suggested that the entire stratum representing Jericho at the time of the conquest, including the fortifications, had been eroded away. Only recently has the consensus finally abandoned the conquest story."(ce)

     (NC.CHRON6) Chapter 4. "... let's look, as Palestin at the time of Joshua Navina. It was necessary to win it?
Here that is known about "ancient" biblical Palestin from historical sources. "During ancient times it there was the finest and fertile earth, all ancient writers unanimously bear to it, representing it is rich decorate with the fine valleys rich with fields and meadows, cool woods, magnificent cities and settlements... Fertility in Palestin in bible days was extreme: wheat, grapes, barley, rice, lentil and a cotton paper planted here in the big abundance;... (dt8:9, 23:19, ezk22:18-19, etc.)...." (ce)

     Here is how the Bible describes Palestin: (KJV) ex3:8 "... a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; ..."; (KJV) dt8:7 "... a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; dt8:8 A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey;
dt8:9 A land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; ..."; (KJV) dt11:10 "..., is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs: 11 But the land, whither ye go to possess it, is a land of hills and valleys, and drinketh water of the rain of heaven: " - i.e. it is not necessary to water kitchen gardens, they will be rains from the sky.

     (NC.CHRON6) Chapter 4. "... And now let's see at Palestin offered us of our epoch... Palestin of a XIX-th century, - substantially stony wilderness... Concerning fertile there was only narrow strip along the sea. A coastal strip... It is characterised... Numerous, non-navigable streams drying up for the summer...... Its width is insignificant, only from 3 to 4 km. About Karmela and to 12 km. At Jaffa (Joppa). Such is the best in the economic relation a part of Palestin....... Fertile Palestin never was.......)

     About biblical river Jordan.... "In northern part, at lake to the Hule, inflows the Al Kebire have formed plain in 10 kilometres of width... densely covered with the bogs which have grown bog rush and versions of the papyrus. Between lakes to the Hule and Tabaria the channel the Al Kebire is dug in ancient streams of a lava... From here to the Dead Sea Shiriat the Al Kebire has 110 kilometres at length... The width of the river reaches here only to 15 m... Its tank - the Dead Sea with wild deserted coast"...."In water irrigating field it is felt... a lack on all ennobled to a strip. At bottom of mounts it is a lot of keys near Halil (ostensibly biblical Hebron - the note of author), but it is not enough in vicinities the Al Kuds (it ostensibly biblical Jerusalem - the note of author)".... This contradiction is felt well also by the author quoted above "the Biblical Encyclopedia". He forcedly writes:" By the position... Palestin belongs to the most fertile countries. If presently there are there many empty places and the untilled earths if all occupied places represent themselves only the big sparsely populated villages it is necessary to remember that it has been clearly foretold by the prophet the Moses "... In other words, in all the Moses is guilty! The predictions in the end has spoilt a climate and even the earth in Palestin.

     In our opinion, from all it follows that biblical aggressive campaigns of the Moses and Joshua Navin occurred absolutely in other places. And the climate of these places completely corresponds to those enthusiastic descriptions of biblical Palestin which we read at 'ancient' authors. Namely, from our reconstruction follows that here it is a question about Ataman's=Ottoman's a conquest of XV century. In particular, the Balkans, northern Mediterranean, the Western Europe and Turkey have been won. The most fertile places of Europe and Asia. More low we will tell more in detail about what the Bible in books narrates Exodus , Leviticus, Numbers, the Deuteronomy and Joshua Navin.... "(ce).

     So, I consider Exodus, as ' Great migration of the nations ', including slavs, 600-year-old prescription, from a continental part of Eurasia to the Black and Mediterranean seas, natural accumulators of heat. The resettlement reason - catastrophic eruption of a volcano and ' volcanic winter '. To a volcano Jews also have come in Exodus .

About catastrophic circumstances.

Fragment of an ancient icon 'The legend on Mamay fight' The image has been uncovered in 1959.
Cannons on a Kulikovo field (1380)
Fragment of an ancient icon
'The legend on Mamay fight'
The image has been uncovered in 1959.

to content     So, it is possible to substitute time and places of events. Have cleaned from bibles ' snow ', ' hoarfrost ', ' ice ', ' frosts ', 'The Black sea', ' cannons ' … etc. Instead of the genuine Palestin - the earths extensive, fertile in which it is not necessary to water kitchen gardens because it raining from the sky, have transferred actions to droughty and tiny district of present Palestin. Having read about snow drifts in Jerusalem or having seen on an ancient icon of the image of guns on a Kulikovo field (the photo see), etc. …, the inhabitant himself indignantly will reject that does not keep within in rolled up in his head time and place outline.

     In 2010 I have written the letter to Israel Finkelstein with the reference to my article (in English ->), offering an explanation of its archaeological nonsense with the Bible, but he has waved away: "it is better to ignore similar theories which are extended everywhere from Amazon to Siberia". However himself, having got to a trap of dogmatics of time and a place, does not find the answer to questions, for example, observing Great migration' a bronze age ':

(BibleUnearthed) Relief from the mortuary temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu in Upper"Chapter 3. The Conquest o f Canaan. ... peaceful, but there were problems on the horizon, problems that would
bring the whole economy and social structure of the Late Bronze Age crashing down. By 1130 ВСЕ, we see a whole different world, ...  What happened? Why did the old world disappear? Scholars who have worked on this problem have been convinced that a major cause was the invasions of mysterious and violent groups named the Sea Peoples,,...

 ...The seaborne invaders look very different from the Egyptians, or from representations of Asiatic people in Egyptian art. The most striking feature in their appearance is their distinctive headgear: some wear horned helmets, others strange feathered headdresses. Nearby, depictions of an intense land battle show Egyptians engaging the Sea People warriors, while families of men, women, and children riding wooden ox carts for an overland migration watch helplessly. ... Who were these threatening Sea Peoples? There is a continuing scholarly debate about their origin and the factors that set them in motion toward the south and east. ... By moving eastward and destroying the fragile network of international trade in the eastern Mediterranean, they disrupted the Bronze Age economies and sent the great empires of the time to oblivion. More recent theories have offered dramatically different explanations. Some point to
sudden climatic change that devastated agriculture and caused widespread famine.. ..."

     The Israeli scientists, probably, know nothing about decoding of dates Egyptian a zodiacs, a small particular ' New chronology ' which name "the largest XX-th century discovering" (Zinovev A.A). That unbiassedly and comprehensively to interpret the facts, scientific should be opened to polemic, should know the basic directions of development of a science. By the 'New chronology' 'Great migration of the nations' to the south can quite get for times of biblical Exodus.

     ' The 10 plagues Egypt ' - is a volcanic winter. (English) ->If the Bible annals, instead of the book of fairy tales ' 10 Egyptian executions ' and Exodus, anyhow, describe real events. In a human history there is no event of more scale than ' Great resettlement of the people' which anyhow should leave the trace in oral and written tradition, and the Bible corresponds to this event, both on a plot, and on relevancy. At the analysis of tens bibles of different times and the nations, other annals, gradually at me the event overall picture has started to develop. The text deformed by places, in generalization, itself reveals distortions, behind them there is uniform, harmonous, logically consecutive outline of events, in causally investigatory communication, inseparably linked, as links of one chain, one calling another, one explaining another. In brief: catastrophic volcanic eruption the reason 'The 10 plagues of Egypt '. I will result them in a possible order of approach: №9 A smoky curtain from the sun, Ashes cement lungs, №3 Ashes cover the earth, №5 and №6 Ashes corrode a skin, №7 Hailstones because of a sharp cold snap, №2 A strong cold, №4 Migration of animals and people, №8 A drifting snow, №10  destruction of vegetation, №1 Civil war. Great migration of the nations begins. (Is more detailed: The 10 plagues Egypt ' - is a volcanic winter. ->)

My reconstruction

to content     Reading in bibles (Sources see) about a 'manna' in:
(KJV) ex16:21 "And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted." ; (Coverdale) "..., it melted awaye."; (DutSW) "..., zo versmolt"; (GerLut1545) "..., zerschmolz es".; (Wycliffe)..., it was moltun. "Etc... I have noticed that in bibles of the German group of languages the word which is very close on sounding to a word 'malt' (sproted grain) in the same languages is used: malt (En.), moult, malz, malt, malţ, malta, malto, slad (it.), malto (It.), malt (Fr.), vermälzen - to raise malt (It.), liquor - to wet malt, see (Vulgate)... liquefiebat it (liquefied) ->)

     The word 'malt' in Russian 'солод' -> 'слад' means sweet. Insipid polysaccharides of sprouting grain decay on sugar and it becomes sweet. The word malt can concern a verb melt, because growing grain is softened and inside as thaws, but not how ice, after all manna it was possible even the furnace and to store till next morning (ex16:23).

     Use sprouted grains in a long campaign can be unique way of a survival in certain conditions. Making a start from these reasons, I have decided to look at biblical 'manna' as on sprouted grain and to find to it confirmation in the Bible. Language reasons in itself prove nothing, and have only suggested an idea to me which I then already checked and with Jewish and Greek ' originals '.

Calendar circumstances.

      If year of Exodus was sabbatical when did not sow and did not press, on fields there was a wild bread that more properly how Jews protested against work and have found a manna - grain. In jubilee years said goodbye debts, and the earth should come back to owners. It would approach to how Jews have fleece up Egyptians and have conquested Palestin. We will consider the Jewish calendar of that time, (J.D.Dwyer) :

  № - sevenths
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 49+1 49 49 49+1 49 49 49+1
2 49 49 49+1 49 49 49+1 49
3 49 49+1 49 49 49+1 49 49
4 49+1 49 49 49+1 49 49 49+1
5 49 49 49+1 49 49 49+1 49
6 49 49+1 49 49 49+1 49 49
7 50+1 50 50 50+1 50 50 50+1
ю 49 next cycle ->
Amount of lunar weeks
In 50 years cycle
to content    The bible begins that for 6 days God has created the world and has rest in 7th. And Jews, assimilating to God, 6 days worked, and 7th feast; 6 years worked, and sabbatical year a feast.

In a lunar calendar from lunar weeks - 1/4 lunar months, lasting 7.38 solar days, week naturally develop a 50-year-old cycle of seven seven and anniversary year. Sabbatical years leap, consist of 50 lunar weeks, usual and anniversary years from 49 lunar weeks. Every third year include 1 leap weak, so full cycle of this system consists 150 yaers, with 50 leap weaks. Average year of such cycle of 365.2442 days, is very close to solar 365.2422 дн. The lunar calendar was considered as "hieratic". In a Qumran scroll (4Q319) the sacred services sent consistently in a current of several anniversary cycles, almost are described 300 years.

Lunar year from 12 months does not keep within solar year and slides on it. But the cycle of lunar years with leaps years very precisely keeps within weeks 50 solar years and phases of the moon of 1st solar year in accuracy repeat in days of 51st solar year.

(BSE) "the Calendar... In total in lunar year 354 days That the first month of each year had on a new moon (it is one of requirements lunar C.) In certain years last month additional days are added; years in 355 day are leap. Because of Lunar year is shorter solar approximately on 11 days the beginning of lunar year annually passes to earlier time and can have for any month of solar year. So, in 1973 beginning of lunar year falls for February, 4th, in 1974 - for January, 25th, in 1975 - for January, 14th, in 1976 - for January, 3rd and on December, 23rd, in 1977 - for December, 12th, in 1978 - for December, 2nd, in 1979 - for November, 21st, in 1980 - for November, 9th and etc. Seven-day week on days coincides with days of week of solar C. Lunar C. was widely adopted in the Muslim countries where it is called as lunar Hegira.

  № - year
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
2 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
3 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
4 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
5 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
6 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
7 52 52 52 52 52 52 54
8 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
9 52 52 52 52 52 52 53
10 52 52 52 52 52 52 54
amount of 7 of 7
in 70 years cycle
    In a solar calendar 7 day weeks, naturally develop in 70 summer cycle in which every year consists of 52 weeks, everyone 7th "sabbatical" leap year, in each 49th and 70th year additional leap week. Full cycle consists 490 years. Average year of such cycle of 365.2429 days is almost equal solar 365.2422, a divergence less than minute in a year. The solar calendar was considered as "imperial".

     Both calendars co-existed, influencing against each other, giving rise to the combined calendars. The moon, the phases, is an evident indicator of the short time intervals which sometimes even not are not demanding calculation, lunar month in ~29.5 days as is stable as solar. On the other hand, the sun forms seasons of year, specifying to equinoxes, solstices, etc. astronomical signs when to sow, press etc. Precisely having calculated day length, modern people have refused time definition through astronomical signs, bodily having relied on an estimated time. Now morning begins not with sunrise and, for example, at 6 (). Year begins not in an autumn equinox, and on September, 23rd in 2011 or already on September, 22nd in 2012 (the church beginning of year, once, should be on September, 1st)

     In a lunnar-solar Jewish calendar 12 lunar months 353-355 дн. - not get the full amount about solar year from 365,25 days of 10-12 days, 13th, one more month by Adar therefore was periodically added. On (BkJubilee) in a year there should be 364 days, anniversary each 49-year was considered, the lunar calendar is denounced. (BSE) "the Calendar... 19 solar years are equal to 235 lunar months (with an error less than in 1,5. Within each 19 years consider 12 years for 12 lunar months (on 29 - 30 days) and 7 years for 13 lunar months. Additional months are inserted next years a 19-year-old cycle: 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 19th. Lunar-solar systems C. were in the ancient time applied in Babylonia, China. To Judea, Greece, Rome and some other countries. In 20 century lunar-solar C. is official in Israel where the beginning of year is necessary on one of days of the period from September, 5th till October, 5th."

 The year of Exodus.     

     In (BkJubilee) anniversary of installation of Israel to Egypt is specified: "And Israel has come to the Egyptian earth, in the country Gesem, in a new moon of the fourth month in the second year of the third week the forty fifth anniversary.", also left Egypt in 430 years the same day (ex12:40-41) On (LXX) & (CS): "Обитания же сынов израилевых, иже обиташа в земли египетстей и в земли ханаани сии и отцы их, лет четыреста тридесять.", in this number their previous life in Canaan that will better be co-ordinated with (BkJubilee), since (BkJubilee) is considered also: from Avram's Exodus to Egypt 40 J. 6 w. 7 j. 1 m. 21 d. Before installation in Egypt 45 J. 3 w. 2 j. 4 m. 1 d. Passes 221 year 3 months 20 days, and from installation in Egypt 45 J. 3 w. 2 j. 4 m. 1 d. Before Exodus ((49 J. 1 w. 2 j. 3 m. 16 d.) - 2 years) - 182 years, only 221 +182 = 403 years. On (Lopukhin) according to (LXX): in Canaan Jews lived 215 years and in Egypt 215 years.

     On (BkJubilee) in 1 day 4 months happened very important events in the history of Jews: exile from Paradise, prophecy to Avraam about a birth of Israel, Joseph's birth (44 J.), installation in Egypt (45 J.).

    On 2nd year from Exodus , on the mount Sinai, the Moses receives from God term (КнЮбилеев): "... Forty nine anniversary years from days of Adam till this day both one week and two years. And more shall be to you forty years to learn precepts of the Lord while they will not be forwarded over Jordan to the West." I.e. they left Egypt in sabbatical (7th) year of 1 week, and in ' the promised land ' Palestin they have entered into an anniversary of anniversaries, 50th anniversary (sabbatical year), ((40 years - (7 years * 5 weeks = 35) + 5 years to week) = 6 weeks + 1 week was yet) = the end of 49th anniversary, are equal in 42nd year from Exodus (1k12:15, josh4:19).

     That that they have entered into Palestin in sabbatical year (for example, dt15:12) the Bible confirms also: dt31:10 ... dt34-8, josh1:1-11. Since in 7 years there came sabbatical year also year of the introduction into Palestin was sabbatical and moreover anniversary. Year of Exodus have found out - sabbatical, now we will find out ' a season ' of Exodus .    

     Month of Exodus.

to content     Events developed so: the crop has been beaten by hailstones (KJV) ex9:31 "And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.
ex9:32 But the wheat and the rie were not smitten: for they were not grown up." On this fragment it is possible to restore event time precisely enough.

     Present Egypt, see "About time and geographical circumstances", I do not examine. On (BSE) "Egypt:... Agriculture in Е. is possible only at an artificial irrigation... The agriculture which is based mainly on use of waters of Nile.... The animal industries are developed poorly in connection with absence of pastures." (BSE) "Nile:... In the Lower Egypt the high water is observed in July - October...." . (Source) "On a relief of an agricultural calendar of a solar temple of tsar Nyuserre in Abusire the image flax pulling- yank the blossomed flax was saved. On the Average Egypt flax harvesting began in April and proceeded eight - ten days as after this time of a box became overripe, seeds burst also dropped out. The harvest of cereal cultures - barley and emmer - on reliefs of the Ancient kingdom is usually represented separately that, possibly, speaks their maturing in different terms: barley - in April, emmer - in May. Cereals shown on reliefs, distinguish on number of grains and colouring: шестирядный barley is painted in green colour, dvuzernjanka-emmer - in red-yellow. The image of barley and emmer in a paint as gifts of a season of "dryness", it was saved on one relief of XI dynasty.... In May started to press later grain culture - wheat - emmer , seeded in November - December which blossomed for a month after barley. However on tomb's reliefs the harvest emmer sometimes is represented near to a harvest before keeping up barley. At often practising then the mixed crops of barley and emmer last removed immature and dried in special furnaces. ", on (Macrisi) in Egypt flax is cleaned in March, barley clean in April. (Lopukhin) comm. on ex7:21-25," As flax blossoms in the bottom Egypt in the end of February, in half of March there is its gathering and a barley harvest it is obvious that the seventh plague was made in the end of February or the beginning of March. From this time before last execution falling on the beginning of April, has passed month; "But then on (Flavius.JW) breakdown of winter camp has begun in June that a nonsense, as for present Egypt (Vipper.HAW), and for the biblical.

      From Average Volga to the South of Russia flax sow usually in the beginning-middle of May. Growth 2.5 - 3 months. Cleaning in July-August in a stage of early yellow ripeness when the fibre was generated, it soft, elastic, seeds basically have blossomed ( It turns out that in ex9:31-32 second half of July - the middle of August on the gregorian breakdown is described approximately. I.e. month of Exodus , it nisan, it abib (ex13:4) is August-September. (hebrew 'אָבִֽיב׃ ' - ' abib ' - month of new ears).

      (NC.CHRON6) chap. 19.2, "in Russia till 1343 New year began since March, since 1343 till 1699 since September.: (NC.CHON3) chap. 15.12. "From December, 20th, 1699 it has been replaced by the decree of tsar Peter I for January, 1st. " (ce) A starting point of ancient solar-lunar calendars equinoxes and solstices ministered, for example, the Stonehendge, the Interval between them is equal and immutable, - such ' a life-giving cross ' seasons. If weather did not correspond to this cross, late frosts or an early drought there was a poor harvest, hunger, wars. Probably, they have served as a prototype of a Christian cross. Solar year began in one of these points of year. When lunar months adhered by solar year, year should begin by paschal rules (except one - that Easter did not get on judaic). I.e. to the beginning of solar year, for example a spring equinox, the next lunar month whose full moon followed an equinox became attached. Then the beginning of calendar year would be always on March, 1st.

     The carrying over of month of New year described in the Bible on abib, has saved echoes of struggle of different calendar systems. I will remind that lunar months are annually displaced on ~-11 days concerning months of solar year and the sum of the collected displacement can reach three years prior to leap year in which 13th month by Adar, is added 33 days for indemnification. On (Flavius.JW) preparing by the winter, Jews have started to be equipped for the winter in 2 months from Exodus , i.e., on flax, in October. In view of displacement of lunar months, it there could be a November (on Gregorian calendar). It is possible to explain late terms of a crop in the lowered temperature ' volcanic winter ', we do not know with what varying regularity there was a cold snap.

     The day of Exodus.

to content     In what days of lunar month nisan there was a Saturday? In what day of week there was an Exodus ? We will try to reconstruct dates (I give names of months by the babylonian tradition):

Фазы луны
full month of moon

1 2 3 4 5 6 сб
nisan 1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
вс пн вт ср чт пт сб
m. Nisan & Iyar
The beginning of new month
The beginning of new month

     Jews lived on a lunar-solar calendar: month began with a new moon, the middle of month - the full moon. A cycle time of the Moon round the Earth ~29.5 days, therefore months serially were "full" 30 days and "incomplete" 29 days In 1sam20:24-27 described 2 days of full moon (feasts) which could compensate an establishment ambiguity of full moonsince for this purpose existed strict sacramental ritual. (JewEnc) V.4, C. 41-50

15th Iyar they have come to wilderness Sin (8 camp), in the morning 16th Iyar has appeared a manna, i.e. it is 1st day of week. (ex16) hence 22 Iyar - Saturday, then and 17th Nisan Saturday. It turns out that left Egypt on the night of 5th day of week - Friday.

The ' Great ' months tried to establish full, but at that time Nisan could not get on points of equinoxes and solstices, Easter yet was not a feast - it occurred these days, it has not been established yet first month of year (ex12:2). The beginning of months was established on the new crescent moon which occurrence does not depend on calendars and is purely astronomical event.

If Nisan ~29 days then Saturday gets on 16th Nisan, and leaven they put on 6th put week, that bake bread on Saturday that more properly. And parking in Sokhofe where they bake the corn, got at evening on Saturday. Further I will proceed from this assumption.

So, on a lunar calendar Jews Exodus from Egypt was on September, 15th ~14XX Sabbatical year, in the night from Friday on 6th.

Temperature circumstances.

to content     In the previous article ' The 10 plagues Egypt ' - is a volcanic winter' I have shown that catastrophic eruption of a volcano caused 'plagues'. The temperature drop schedule depends on quantitative, time, chemical, aerosol and other characteristics of emissions in atmosphere. In the Bible temperatures are not specified, and there are only narrative descriptions of events.

Cold snaps were how much sharp and thaw it is not known. Events developed promptly: a three-day curtain from the sun (ex10:21-23), the hailstones have beaten a crop (ex9:24,31), snow (ex10:13-15) (take a look about a word 'locust' here), have frozen the vegetation (ex11:5), has begun migration on the south (ex8:21-22). Jews put leaven, but those do not rise from a cold. Exodus has begun. Jews carry away with themselves leaven which have not rised even on their exit from ' Egypt ' (see The Egyptian leaven and Sabbath)

In some days Jews pass on frozen ' sea ' (ex15:8), and Egyptians, having broken ice, sink, the part gets out and freezes (ex14:30). Jews have come in temperature ' an oasis ' - Crimea. In a month from Exodus , morning of day of an appropriation of a god-send positive temperature, dew (ex16:13).

The Egyptian leaven and Sabbath.

to content     Jews have left Egypt for ever to move in unknown (num13) Palestin. They have taken away from Egyptians all valuable that could take away: jewelry, cattle, foodstuff and even dough: (KJV) ex12:34 "And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. ... 39 And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual."

But when they set dough for ferment and what for? Dough carrying out is described mass, means Jews put it to be made sour at the same time, as can see to a feast, so as to bake bread by Saturday... They knew About Exodus before, it was necessary to result the sacrificial innocent person home still 10th Nisan (ex12:3-6). At night of s14 th on 15th, eating the baked meat, they ate it with unleavened bread. Making dough for ferment, Jews already knew that she will not be in time to leaven in Egypt. On Saturday to bake bread it is impossible, and here in a feast as bread sacrificial it is possible. To meat they have not baked some this bread, means preparations for Saturday, calmed vigilance of the Egyptians expecting pogrom. It could look how they earlier and represented to Egyptians: (KJV) ex3:18 "... : and now let us go, we beseech thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, ...", ex10:9 "..., We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we must hold a feast unto the LORD."

Jews have baked this dough in 2nd camp - Succoth. (Praga) num33 "Вторый стан сынов Iзраилевыхъ Сохотъ еже исказуется кущи, там наипервей начаша людие пребывати укущах ипекоша опресноки стеста неквасного." (The second camp of sons of Israelite Sohot still is called tents, there people for the first time have started to abide in tents and to bake a feast of unleavened bread from the unleavened dough.) (KJV) ex12:39 "Also were baked by them from the test which have taken out from Egypt, unleavened cakes, wherefore it yet вскисло..." It is indirectly possible to establish time of transition to Succoth - less time of turning sour of the dough. Or dough has been baked still later. It is described that bore leaven on shoulders... If it was cold, thus wanted to warm it. In heat with ferment 2-3 hours that it is good to turn sour, in a cold are required to the dough, dough can long not turn sour. Anyway dough was not absolutely fresh because of ferment. In (Lopukhin), comm. on ex12:33-34, this assumption is authorised to that to Jews the law on a feast of unleavened bread has not been declared yet.

     If the exit from Rameses and ward to Succoth symbolises an exit from Egypt, so Succoth not Egypt! I will remind that kindreds of the Reuben and the Gad remained to live in the earths to Palestinian, to Jordanian (num32:26) including Succoth: (KJV) josh13:27 "..., and Succoth, ...28 This is the inheritance of the children of Gad ..."

     From calendar calculation follows to have time to bake bread till Saturday, they should come in Succoth less than for days (same date from (BkJubilee)). Nonmigratory people lodged along the rivers, therefore it is no wonder that for days Jews could depart from the river in sparsely places - wilderness. In Succoth they should spend Saturday, i.e. remain see you in the evening 16th."

     For days leavens not leaven?! Leavens it is mentioned in ' executions Egyptian ' (KJV) ex8:2 "...,, I will smite all thy borders with frogs: ; 8:3 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, which shall go up and come into thine house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneadingtroughs: ... 8:14 And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank. " I will notice that in the rivers there live not toads, and frogs. (DRC) исх 8:2 "... strike all thy coasts with frogs." (... will strike all thy coast "frogs") Etymologically a word ' frog ' very close to concept 'a freez ', Lat. frigus - a cold, a winter icy cold, winter; En. refrigeration - the refrigerator; frost, freeze; (Vasmer) a.u.d. fragilis - a frost., (FreLSG) ex8:2 "... frapper (1. To strike 2. To stamp; to mint) par des grenouilles (granules?) ". (Vasmer)" shug- "small floating ice or snow lumps, fat on the river in the autumn", forms ' granules ' which then freeze together in ice floes. "(ce) in French the word ' grenouilles ' - ' a frog ' is very similar to a word ' granules ' - ' granules ', in the same language. Clearly then a word ' to strike ', strange applied on frogs. Here the frost really - strikes, beats, pierces. What for to frogs to climb in a barn? And here the cold getting into a barn, will freeze vegetables and fruit, and after thawing they already long will not be saved. The serious theme for complaint! (" Also have collected them in heaps, and smell the earth ") Water and a damp forage for pets needed to be warmed periodically. The regular affinity of roots of words ' a frog ' and ' ' in different languages suggests a cold that is primary in the text the concept ' a cold ', ' a frost ' was used. (My reconstruction 2nd plague of Egypt)

     19th Nisan (BkJubilee), Jews pass ' the sea on dry ' on ice (ex14:16), the sea has frozen (Torah) ex15:8 "..., abysses in sea heart have frozen together."... For 7 day from Exodus they have come in Merra where there was a water and have settled down there a camp. It is possible to assume that here they have staid enough time, for ferment and a bread batch. (KJV) ex12:18 "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even.
" Since the late evening of 21st it is considered already 22th Nisan, day, when they should put ferment to bake bread on Saturday 23 Nisan. Besides, after a crossing through the ‘Red’ sea they were not pursued any more by Egyptians. They still had a flour, it has ended only in wilderness Sin (through Elim), in ~23 days, in 15th day, Iyar, 2nd month on Exodus . Till the winter there were 2 months (Flavius.JW) "... Upon the fifteenth day of the same month (3th by Exodus ), when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year;”

Amount of people (horses, cattle ...).

 to content    Jews have come off Egyptians on horses and vehicles (for example, gen45:19, gen46:5) and Egyptians have caught up with them on horses and vehicles (ex14:6-7), only for 3th day from Exodus : (KJV) исх12:37 "And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children." In censuses ~ in a year from Exodus (num1), and ~ in 42 years from Exodus (num26) Jews estimated only men from 20 years to 50. Children was born many, and a lot of them died before old ages, probably, absolutely the few, seldom who lived till 60 years (num26). So their mention could be scorned. Hardly it means that they have left the children then it would be added "except women and old men". It is remarkable that in spite of the fact that kindreds of the Reuben and the Gad have left to live the families in before Palestina earths, them became not much less in the second census by the time of capture of Palestin. It is necessary to pay attention to multiplication factor of quantities almost of all knees 100 in both censuses that, considering meticulousness of the account and a high probability, means 100 multiple exaggeration. By the way, in knees of the Reuben and the Gad multiplication factor = 10.
Knees num1 num26
1 Reuben 46500 43730
2 Simeon 59300 22200
3 Gad 45650 40500
4 Judah (Praga) -71600 74600 76500
5 Issachar 54400 64300
6 Zebulun 57400 60500
7 Ephraim 40500 32500
8 Manasseh 32200 52700
9 Benjamin 35400 45600
10 Dan 62700 64400
11 Asher 41500 53400
12 Naphtali 53400 45400
13 Levites (num4:48) 8580 23000
All (witout Levites ) 603550 601730

          Let's try count possible quantity of fugitives.

age m.,
>50 5
20-50 17,8
0-19 28,8
Sum : 51,6
All: 3 428 572 persons

     Jews had primitive type of reproduction of the population, high birth rate and death rate. Thus most of all children and least old men. At such type of reproduction the typical parities taken in one of modern underdeveloped countries, about the following: 4 % - from 50 years, 35 % of 20-50 years, 61 % of 0-19 years. In recalculation on people it is received that according to starting figure 600.000 of men of 20-50 years, Jews in Egypt was not less than 3.400.000 persons. It was not known how much precisely them in Exodus , can less a little, and most likely it is much more, considering especially children's death rate in those days...     

      To impregnate 3.4 million people and their living creatures the large quantity of water, manna, etc. the foodstuffs is required. At such quantity some versions of manna disappear, sap of a tamarisk or an ash-tree is not produced so much. It is necessary to consider and what go a flock chain cannot, because the first eat away a pasture of the subsequent. Probably therefore the part of Jews from mostly flocks almost has dissipated at once (num32:1, num32:26).

Proceeding from such amount of the people, leading Israeli archeologists consider: (BibleUnearthed) p. 131, "Chapter 4. Who Were the Israelites? ... The process that we describe here is, in fact, the opposite of what we have in the Bible: the emergence of early Israel was an outcome of the collapse of the Canaanite culture, not its cause. And most of the Israelites did not come from outside Canaan—they emerged from within it. There was no mass Exodus from Egypt. There was no violent conquest of Canaan. Most of the people who formed early Israel were local people—the same people whom we see in the highlands throughout the Bronze and Iron Ages. The early Israelites were - irony of ironies - themselves originally Canaanites! ...

... According to the biblical account, the children of Israel wandered in the desert and mountains of the Sinai peninsula, moving around and camping, in different places, for a full forty years .... Even if the number of fleeing Israelites (given in the text as six hundred thousand) is wildly exaggerated or can be interpreted as representing smaller units of people, the text describes the survival of a great number of people under the most challenging conditions. Some archaeological traces of their generation - long wandering in the Sinai should be apparent. However, ... , not a single campsite or sign of occupation from the time of Ramesses II and his immediate predecessors and successors has ever been identified in Sinai. ... Repeated archaeological surveys in all regions of the peninsula, including the mountainous area around the traditional site of Mount Sinai,
near Saint Catherine's Monastery (see Appendix B), have yielded only negarive evidence: not even a single sherd, no structure, not a single house, no trace of an ancient encampment. One may argue that a relatively small band of wandering Israelites cannot be expected to leave material remains behind. But modern archaeological techniques are quite capable of tracing even the very meager remains of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads all over the world. Indeed, the archaeological record from the Sinai peninsula discloses evidence for pastoral activity in such eras as the third millennium ВСЕ and the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods. There is simply no such evidence
at the supposed time of the Exodus in the thirteenth century ВСЕ. The conclusion—that the Exodus did not happen at the time and in the manner described in the Bible—seems irrefutable when we examine the evidence at specific sites where the children of Israel were said to have camped for extended periods during their wandering in the desert (Numbers 33) and where some archaeological indication - if present - would almost certainly be found.. ... Yet repeated excavations and surveys throughout the entire area have not provided even the slightest evidence for activity in the Late Bronze Age, not even a single sherd left by a tiny fleeing band of frightened refugees..

     ... According to the Bible, when the children of Israel moved along the Transjordanian plateau they met and confronted resistance not only in Moab but also from the full-fledged states of Edom and Amnion. Yet we now know that the plateau of Transjordan was very sparsely inhabited in the Late Bronze Age. In fact, most parts of this region, including Edom, which is mentioned as a state ruled by a king in the biblical narrative, were not even inhabited by a sedentary population at that time. To put it simply, archaeology has shown us that there were no kings of Edom there for the Israelites to meet. ...

     ... There was no sign of violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group. Instead, it seemed to be a revolution in lifestyle. In the formerly sparsely populated highlands from the Judean hills in the south to the hills of Samaria in the north, far from the Canaanite cities that were in the process of collapse and disintegration, about two-hundred fifty hilltop communities suddenly sprang up. Here were the first Israelites. ...

    ..., An excavated sector of Izbet Sartah, a Late Iron Age I village in the western foothills featuring pillared houses and grain silos.Most surprising of all was the tiny scale of these settlements. In most cases they were no more than a single acre in size and contained, according to estimates, about fifty adults and fifty children. Even the largest settlements in the highlands reached only three or four acres in size, with a population of a few hundred people. The entire population of these hill country villages at the peak of the settlement process, around 1000 ВСЕ, could not have been much more than forty-five thousand. ... , the highland villages contained no public buildings, palaces, storehouses, or temples. Signs of any sophisticated kind of record keeping, such as writing, seals, and seal impressions, are almost completely absent. There are almost no luxury items: no imported pottery and almost no jewelry. Indeed, the village houses were all quite similar in size, suggesting that wealth was distributed quite evenly among the families. The houses were built of unworked fieldstones, with rough stone pillars propped up to provide support for the roof or upper story. The average building, around six hundred square feet in size, presumably housed four to five people—the size of a nuclear family. In many cases, stone-lined pits for storage of grain were dug between the houses (Figure ->). These silos, and a large number of sickle blades and grinding stones found in every house, indicate that grain growing was one of the villagers' main concerns. Yet herding was still important; fenced courtyards near the houses were apparently used for keeping animals secure at night. ...

... One Iron Age I village - Izbet Sartah - located on die western margins of the highlands overlooking the coastal plain, was almost fully excavated and therefore provided enough information for a reliable reconstruction of its subsistence economy. A detailed analysis of the excavated data by Baruch Rosen, an Israeli specialist in ancient agricultural production and nutrition, suggested that the village (with an estimated population of
about one hundred) was probably supported by about eight hundred acres of surrounding land, four-hundred fifty of which were cultivated and the rest used for pasture. Under the conditions of the Early Iron Age, those fields could have produced up to fifty-three tons of wheat and twenty-one tons of barley per year, with the help of about forty oxen for plowing. In addition, the inhabitants apparently maintained a herd of about three hundred sheep and goats. (It should be noted, though, that this village was located in a fertile area of the foothills. Most villages in the highlands were not as "rich.")The Early Iron Age I village - Izbet Sartah. The oval layout indicates the pastoral origins of the inhabitants.

   The earliest phase at the site had a highly unusual plan, very different from the later cluster of rectangular, pillared houses that later arose on the site. The first settlement was built in the shape of an oval, with a row of rooms surrounding a large open courtyard (Figure 13). Those outer rooms were connected to' one another in a way that formed a kind of continuous belt protecting the inner courtyard. The large, enclosed courtyard hints that the inhabitants had herds, probably flocks of sheep and goats. The discovery of a few silos, sickle blades, and grinding stones indicates that they practiced a bit of grain farming as well., ... The plan of this very early Iron Age I village is similar not only to Bronze and Iron Age sites in the steppe lands, but also to bedouin tent encampments described and
even photographed by travelers in the Judean desert, Transjordan, and the Sinai at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. In this type of encampment, a row of tents encircled an open courtyard, where the flocks were kept at night.. ...

     By the highpoint of this settlement wave in the eighth century ВСЕ, after the establishment of the kingdoms of Judali and Israel, it encompassed over five hundred sites, with a population of about 160,000. This dramatic population growth was made possible by the full utilization of the regions agricultural potential." (ce)

     So the Israeli scientists who have generalised results of all archeological excavations, assert in (BibleUnearthed) that any traces Exodus & conquest ' Palestin ' it is not revealed, even if in the Bible the quantity of the people is strongly exaggerated. At calculation of quantity of inhabitants which the earth ' Palestin ' during biblical time was capable to support, it has come to figure in 20 times of the smaller biblical.

      Let's try to calculate eating requirement of crowds of Exodus . I will remind that barley partially remained on fields (ex9:31-32), in connection with a sharp cold snap dropped out a considerable quantity of precipitations, from time to time there came thaw (dew occurrence). We take figures from (BibleUnearthed) see above, on 450 hectares of one village from 100 people of 53 tons of wheat and 21 ton of barley. Productivity of wheat a little below barley on ~ 15 % then 307 hectares are occupied with wheat, and 143 barley, i.e. 157 kg. Wheat on hectare and 185 kg. barley on hectare.

     Starting with (Marinchenko V. A. The technology of spirit) "Bulk density of grain fluctuates in following limits (in t/m3): oats 0,30-0,50, barley 0,48-0,68, corn 0,60-0,85, millet 0,68-0,75, a rye 0,67 0,75, wheat 0,73-0,85.... During soaking grain bulks up, increasing in volume, for example, on 40-45 % (barley)" (ce) in omer 3,6 litres enter from 3,6 * 0,48 = 1,7 kg. barley and to 3,6 * 0,85 =3 kg. wheat. We will check up such quantity of grain for days will suffice? Caloric content of dry grain: barley - 325 kcal on 100 гр, and wheat of 309 kcal on 100 гр. (Caloric content of grain) I.e. omer of barley ~ = 5355 kcal and omer wheat ~ = 9270. Without physical activities it is required to the average person about 1500 kcal day, i.e. described quantity kcal allowed Jews to share grain with horses.

The table of the expense of calories

(have got from)

kcal per h



Walk across the field 400 2 800
The pedestrian campaign 600    
Dream 46 12 552
Riding, step 160 8 1280
Riding, a lynx 560    
Gathering of fruit 356 2 712
Total     3344

     Let's provide three different "crowds" of Jews, group of avant-guard 1000 people, "regiment" of 34.000 foreheads and the minimum number of all Jews of 3.4 million people

     Let's calculate amount of grain necessary for daily livelihood of these groups of Jews and we will make the amendment on the grain which has bulked up on 50 %, that it on 33 % is necessary less than dry. Let's calculate the areas the containing received amount of grain.

     From (SM.AricultS) № 10 - 2005, optimum norm of seeding of barley of 4 million grains on 1 hectare with the highest productivity of 3,4 tons on hectare. We will mean that this data is overestimated in comparison with productivity of ancient cultures. So we will calculate what quantity of the earth every morning it would be required to Jews. Calculation shows that "regiment" of Jews devastates such village for a day. All assembly of Jews of village has not enough, therefore they have broken into "regiments" and traded separately since villages at that time were small. A day 3.4 million to Jews would be required to be plundered till 10-15 villages. In such rate they had no time to prepare, not to ask bread doomed that they prepared bread for a robbery.

Grains it is necessary for daily livelihood.
people Dry grain The grain which has bulked up on 50 %
Amount of dry grain, tons The necessary
area, hectare
Amount of dry grain, tons The necessary
area, hectare
1000 1,7 3


19 1,1 2 6 13
34000 58 102 312 648 39 68 209 434
3400000 5780 10200 31205 64784 3873 68340 20907 43405

      In wells water cannot accumulate in number of an annual stock, therefore for water supply Jews should keep large reservoirs.

     Let's come back to a question on living creatures and grain: (KJV) ex12:38 "And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.", and the cattle could not be overtaken quickly: gen33:13 "... , and the flocks and herds with young are with me: and if men should overdrive them one day, all the flock will die.",  (BibleUnearthed) p. 130 "Chapter 4. Who Were the Israelites? ... ... pastureland, heavy, slow-moving cattle are a burden. They cannot move as fast and as far as sheep and goats. ....". Probably therefore families of knees of the Reuben, the Gad and half of Manasseh have scattered, having left at themselves a few men of military age and have settled with cattle before Palestin (num32:26), since Succoth - (KJV) num32:1 "Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle: and when they saw the land of Jazer, and the land of Gilead, that, behold, the place was a place for cattle; ...", and at the rest of Jews the meat lack (ex16:3, num11:4, num11:13 etc.) has soon begun . Silly to chase on wilderness dispersion and Egyptians have pursued the Exodus kernel: (KJV) dt14:9 "But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon."

     There is a question on 600.000 pedestrian men and a delay of Egyptians for 3 days. In (LXX) this word "πεζῶν" can be translated as "going by the ground" in sense moving in contrast with to "going on water", after all they went from the great navigable river Rah (Nile), num11:5 "We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; ...". In Egypt was so many horses that it could deliver them in other countries: dt17:16 "... But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, ..." The cattle cannot be overtaken without horses, we will remember cow+boys. Without horses it is impossible to war against a cavalry. Horses against infantry at that time, meant, about the same that presently an armored troop-carrier or tanks against infantry. Anyway the part of the population with property could move only on vehicles: old men, small children (for example, gen45:19, gen46:5).."

  It is possible to assume that in Rameses on all Jews of horses has not sufficed, and Egyptians have left at all without horses. In Succoth and further Jews could grasp flocks as also Egyptians could tighten horses from surrounding pastures. Anyhow Egyptians on horses and vehicles (ex14:6-7) have caught up with Jews only for 3rd day at the ' Red ' sea. On (BkJubilee) in 4th day from Exodus , after transition by Jews of the sea ' on dry ', it was allowed to malicious forces (higher Masteme) to help Egyptians, but even they already could do nothing with their help, so their full feebleness is shown. (' Higher Mastema ', see about immolation by Avraam (BkJubilee))."

      Why Egyptians though and with hitch have dared to pursue Jews, have caught up with them moving slowly enough, with a string of carts, only in three days? What for was to pursue on carts? After all astride horses much faster! The answer idle time: Egyptians have been urged to take too carts- ' chariots ' ex14:6 "And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him: ex14:7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them." In ex14:19-20 firing between Jews and Egyptians if Egyptians did not take with themselves heavy fire-arms is in a flowery style enough described, they could not confront with Jews defensive feature ' chariots ' ", for example, is shown jud1:19 ... ; but could not drive out the inhabitants of the valley, because they had chariots of iron.
", therefore Egyptians too took ' chariots ' which dragged the heavy weapon. The fire-arms in the Bible are the most picturesque are described in judg7:16-22 (& ex4:3, ex7:12, ex7:20, ex8:17, ex14:24, ex15:7, ex17:5-6, ex17:11, ex23:28, dt8:15, dt9:3, dt7:20 etc., I will send readers to (NC.CHRON6) Chapter 4.9.2. Iron chariots = fire guns.) They are imposed that in the Bible there are no fire-arms, they achieve it replacement of corresponding words with others (see Indicative miraclening).



to content     They have stolen cattle, have taken away a flour, even dough in leavens. It is impossible to present, that exoding from Rameses - the city of stocks, they did not take grain. Grain is long stored, bread from it the basic foodstuff (dt10:18; judg8:5; judg19:5; judg19:19; 1sam2:5; 1sam28:20; 2k4:8). Here an example of a proportion for a nurture in a campaign: 1sam25:18 "... , and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready dressed, and five measures of parched corn, and an hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, ...". In (Mormon1830) Chapter11 23:1 "... they gathered together their flocks and took of their grain, and departed into the wilderness ...) - Flight of Jews from the enemy is described. In due time Joseph has collected in cities 7 summer crop of Egypt (gen41:48) Patriarch Jacob having flocks, sends get grain for not to die: gen42:2 "... there is corn in Egypt: get you down thither, and buy for us from thence; that we may live, and not die." It is strange that since flight, up to ' manna's appropriations ' the word ' grain ' is never used, and after all has passed month. Till a crop in Sinai wilderness they ate ' manna '. In a year from Exodus during a crop the Moses speaks to people that they brought grain from a crop (lev2:14) manna ceases to appear only in 41 year in Palestin (josh5:10-12). It is necessary to assume that Jews simply did not have fuel to prepare the true bread. In steppes only a grass, and that not always the dry. Bricks from under cattle which use instead of fire wood, easily to collect only on the parking, already dried on the earth, in a stage it is impossible.

    The horse can live on hay and a pasture, the greens on all earth were gone (ex10:12), and for a hard work and in transitions grain (oats, barley) demands. Wheat and a rye it is impossible to give more than 2-3 kg a day, it can call gripes. Barley so also simultaneous oats with it, have been beaten by hailstones (ex9:31) and partially remained on fields. It is required to one horse more than 35 litres of water a day, means periodically they should approach to the big watering places: (about a drought) 1k18:5 "... , Go into the land, unto all fountains of water, and unto all brooks: peradventure we may find grass to save the horses and mules alive, that we lose not all the beasts." . Cows and especially sheep are less whimsical and can survive on a pasture, but water is necessary to them. On the rivers at that time basically also lodged, so the Exodus way came back to settlements with their fields. It is necessary to notice that days in which they left from Egypt are days harvests (JewEnc) V9. P. 398-399, a new crop, but the crop or is beaten on fields by hailstones or has not been collected yet (ex9:31)

     The flour has come to an end a month later when they have entered into wilderness Sin: (Flavius.JW) : but as they went away hastily, on the third day they came
to a place called Beelzephon, on the Red Sea; and when they had no food out of the land, because it was a desert, they eat of loaves kneaded of flour, only warmed by a gentle heat; and this food they made use of for thirty days; for what they brought with them out of Egypt would not suffice them any longer time; and this only while they dispensed it to each person, to use so much only as would serve for necessity, but not for satiety. Whence it is that, in memory of the want we were then in, we keep a feast
for eight days, which is called the feast of unleavened bread." The Bible will be co-ordinated on terms with Flavius: ex16:1 "And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt. 2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness: 3 And the children of Israel said unto them, Would to God we had died by the hand of the LORD in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger. “ As on Flavius in 8 days after Exodus was 23 Nisan, 6th put week when they baked bread on Saturday 24th Nisan. Under bibles: (CS) ex13:6 - 7 days.

     So, the flour has come to an end also they should pass to grain... From this point on and all 40 years in a way to "promised land" Jews periodically ate a bread substitute - manna. But how grain to prepare in a fast campaign, in wilderness - without surplus of water?

40 years in wilderness, as though circles - a myth!.

Various names of wilderness in camps 8,12,33 have united in one.

camp 8

camp 12

camp 33

пустыни синъ пустыни синъ пустыни синъ (Ostrich)
Синь пустыня Синайской пустыни - (Praga)
пустыне Син пустыне Синайской пустыне Син (RST)
пустыни син пустыни сина пустыни син (CS)
the wilderness of Sin the wilderness of Sinai the wilderness of Zin (ACV)
ויסעו ויסעו ויסעו (Aleppo)
the wildernesse of Zin the wildernesse of Sinai the wyldernesse of Sin (Bishops)
the wildernesse of Sin the wildernes of Sinai ye wildernes of Zin (Coverdale)
the wildernesse of Sin the wildernesse of Sinai the wildernesse of Zin (Geneva)
der Wüste Sin der Wüste Sinai der Wüste Zin (GerLut1545)
ερημον σιν ερημω σινα ερημου σιν (LXX)
the Wilderness of Sin the Wilderness of Sinai the Wilderness of Tsin (TS1998)
deserto Sin deserto Sinai desertum Sin (Vulgate)
סִֽין׃ סִינָֽי׃ צִ֖ן (WTT)
the deseert of Syn the wildirnesse of Synay deseert of Syn (Wycliffe)
... the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. ... (J. Ussher)

to content      num32:13 "And the LORD'S anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation, that had done evil in the sight of the LORD, was consumed."

     Different names of wilderness have translated as one (the table see). Their way did not repeat and passed through set of settlements, wilderness Faran, for example: num10:12 "... took their journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran." num12:16 "... removed from Hazeroth, and pitched in the wilderness of Paran.", num13:26 "... , unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh; ...", it is stretched from wilderness Sinai (12th camp) to wilderness Cin (the Kadesh, 33rd camp) where there lived grain-growers, for example: lam5:9 "We gat our bread with the peril of our lives because of the sword of the wilderness. ", cattlemen and hunters: gen21:20 "...; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer." gen21:21 "And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: ..." (About Isaace the son of the Sara), i.e. Isaak has become the hunter in wilderness, lev17:13 "And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among you, which hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten; ..."

     Wilderness this uninhabited place: steppe without an arable land, wood without glades or even in the distance from water sources. In such places it was possible to graze cattle, jl1:19 "... the pastures of the wilderness,  ...", and to be occupied gradually transforming "wilderness" into a place rendered habitable, having cultivated the land, having dug out wells etc. : isa62:4 " And you shall no more be called Forsaken; and your land shall no more be called Desert; for you shall be called My Pleasure, and your land Inhabited; for the Lord has taken pleasure in you, and your land shall be inhabited." There is also a return process: "And I will make your cities waste, ..." (lev26:31), i.e. poorly populated.


40 years in wilderness ate only a manna - a myth!.

to content      It is considered to be that Jews were engaged mainly in cattle breeding, and Egyptians agriculture (gen47:20) In due time Joseph bought up for the pharaon all earth of Egyptians (AB) gen47:21 "And he brought the people into bondage to him, for servants, from one extremity of Egypt to the other," Has passed ~400 years... Here there is a question who slaves in the earth Egyptian then were? The leading archeologist of Israel Israel Finkelshtein in (BibleUnearthed) Chapter 4, "Who Were the Israelites? ... ... , people have always had the know-how to rapidly change from village life to animal husbandry - or back from pastoralism to settled agriculture - according to evolving political, economic, or even climatic conditions. Many groups throughout the region have been able to shift their lifestyle according to the best interest of the moment,.", "... : villagers can rely on their own produce for survival, while pastoral nomads cannot exist entirely on the products of their herds. They need grain to supplement and balance their high-fat diet of meat and milk. As long as there are villagers to trade with, the nomads cancontinue to concentrate on animal husbandry. But when grain cannot be obtained in exchange for animal products, the pastoral nomads are forced to produce it for themselves." shows that the population was engaged both that and another. To survive it was necessary to use all combination of resources of the nature, the cattle gave fertilizer, fields were given more squirrel to cattle, etc. Jews too were engaged in agriculture (dt11:10), but they could specialise more on cattle breeding in the food union with Egyptians.

     The affliction - ' The 10 plagues Egypt ' - a volcanic winter has come. During a crop all vegetation (ex9:31) was lost, the cattle has started to perish. To remain, meant not to live till a following crop to people cattle. If the earth brought a poor crop the mutual robbery began, for example : hos8:7 "... : it hath no stalk: the bud shall yield no meal: if so be it yield, the strangers shall swallow it up. ... " Anyhow the Egyptian society was divided into two camps. Those who was going to leave better were familiar with nomadic life, most likely, born cattlemen - Jews. But they not simply have left, they have perfidiously selected at living in misery the last and marauded further on all way, having thought up that God has put all of them other people at the mercy (num14:9). Them tortured feeling of guilt, but she has been calmed (Vulgate) dt9:5-6. With Jews Egypt left also other foreigners (ex9:20, num11:4, dt29:11, lev24:10 etc.), (KJV) исх12:38 "And a great mixed company went up with them, and sheep and oxen and very much cattle.", probably, as a part of mixed marriages and slaves.

     So, from Egypt, from Rameses, Jews left with flocks and supplies. The knee of Gad, is proved already in Succoth (josh13:27-28, num32:25-26), a 2nd camp, after Rameses. Overtaken at the ‘Red’ sea by Egyptians, Jews escape from them, having passed the sea, and Egyptians sink. In a month enter into wilderness Sin where at them the flour (Flavius.JW) comes to an end, and for the first time appears manna. In total one month ago they left in a campaign and here they already do not have their flocks and meal, except the manna?! But already after wilderness Sin (8th camp) where it was manna, they still have flocks: a camp 11th "Rephidim" - (KJV) ex17:3 Have you brought us up out of Egypt to slay us and our children and our cattle with thirst? " After that victory over Amalik - replenishment of stocks as it became usually, for example follows: (KJV) num31:9 "And they made a prey of the women of Midian, and their store, and their cattle, and all their possessions; ..." After victory over Amalik to the Moses comes, living nearby, its father-in-law living nearby - priest of Midian at whom there live the wife and two sons of the Moses (ex18:1-6), (LPM) and eat bread, ex18:12 "...; : and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father in law before God. " From Rephidim they go to Sinai wilderness, where at the mount Sinai for 3rd month 15th day (Flavius.JW) set up winter camp, winter, probably sow and remain even till a crop.

     In Sinai wilderness passes ~10.5 months: wintering, spring, summer, harvesting time (num15:18-20), and it is equal in a year from Exodus they finish assemblage of a transportable temple, see fig. from (Prague) , and in 20th day Nisas 2nd year on Exodus (num10:11) go to Palestin. Переносной 'мангал' - алтарь - жертвенник, для приготовления мяса

     Jews promptly cross great wilderness Faran, passing through camps: (Prague) Kibroth-hattaavah; Hazeroth; Rithmah; Rimmon-parez; Libnah; Rissah; Kehelathah; a mount Shapher; Haradah, Makheloth; Tahath; Tarah; Mithcah; Hashmonah; Moseroth; Bene-jaakan; Hor-hagidgad; Jotbathah, Ebronah, Ezion-gaber ... The Kadesh, whence through river Jordan reconnoiter Palestin.

     High speed of marches pushes on thought that is frequent they have been urged to cook food on the move, they prepared meat on figurative "brazier" - an altar, with rings and poles in them for possibility of its carrying even during cooking. I will remind, from victims of burnt sacrifice there are only ashes (an altar, probably, oil + tar), fit on to ' clarification ' (analogue of soap, num19:9), and ' peace a victim ' (from here ' a grub ', the sacrificer) were eaten by all society. Grain to prepare very simply - to put in a grain pot, to pour waters and to wait.

     To a temple has been made transportable "brazier" - an altar (ex38:1-7) in the sizes 5 x 5 x 3 elbows. The sizes indirectly tell about amount of eaters from it. We will assume ' an elbow ' ~45 sm then the sizes of a brazier - 2.25 m on 2.25 m, at depth of meat branch ~ 70 sm it is possible to bake in it some times in day bodily ~8 rams with the general net weight in 160 kg, and to support some thousand persons that will be co-ordinated with version 1000 of multiple overestimate of quantity of Jews. Under version 100 of multiple exaggeration to support 34 000 persons such brazier it will not be possible. Since the part of Jews with cattle dissipated, they have been divided into "regiments" it is possible to assume that the temple carried out a staff role in which military-political questions were solved. A knee of Levits, in whose conducting there was a temple (num1:50-51), such brazier could support. As sacerdotalism the levits who do not have cattle and the earth (num18:20-22), should be supplied with other Jews completely.

      The scouts have returned, sent to survey Palestin, num13:26 "... came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh; ..." and has arisen discord - to win or return to Egypt. The Moses frightens, "God is angry:..." num14:32 "..., your carcases, they shall fall in this wilderness." num14:33 "And your children shall wander in the wilderness forty years,...". It turns out that (it Cin) they will live in wilderness Faran of 40 years. All this time Jews receive bread, oil from the earth, bring from them gifts (lev2:1...), at them is home (lev17:3) and wild (lev17:13) meat. At 40th year 5 months 1 day of Exodus near to the Kadesh, whence they sent investigation to Palestin, on the montain Or the Aaron (num33:37-38) dies. Here so Jews respond about "manna": num21:5 "... for there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread." (Despite high nutritious qualities, sprouted grain is not so tasty and is monotonous) On the way to Palestin Jews grasped the passing countries and settlements and lived in them: half of knee of Manasseh in the rest of Gileadand Bashan (region of Argob) (num34:14, dt3:13-17, josh12:6, josh13:8 etc.), kindreds of the Gad and the Reuben, чис32:1 "Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle: and when they saw the land of Jazer, and the land of Gilead, that, behold, the place was a place for cattle;", remain to live in the earths Gilead and Jazer (num32:26) that right after Rameses after an exit from Egypt, but promise to help with capture of Palestin. There live Jews in Amorites with its fields and vineyards (num21:21-25); in Bashan (num21:33-35), having killed all; in Midian (num31:7-9), having killed all except girls.

     Jews used grocery stocks (live cattle, grain) of the destroyed nations, num14:9 "... , neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us: ...", (num32:26) and even fornicated with local population: num25:1 "And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab."All this time... they did not suffer a lack" (dt2:7), just as already in Palestin "... A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; 9 A land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; ...." (dt8:8-9) "Yea, forty years didst thou sustain them in the wilderness, so that they lacked nothing;..." (neh9:21) Sometimes meal bought dt2:6 "Ye shall buy meat of them for money, that ye may eat; ..." After war because of this fornication, at 42th year of Exodus , the Moses and the son of the Aaron priest Eliazar make census of Jews at the approach to Palestin, at Jordan, opposite to Jericho, 601730 people (num26:51) instead of 603.550 people (num1:45-46) ~40-41 one year ago in Sinai wilderness. From counting after an exit from Egypt in wilderness Sinai men of 20-50 years there were 5 people. Further the Moses dies, having seen Palestin from apart from a mount, and without having entered into it (dt34:1-5)..

     The exit from wilderness Faran and transition of river Jordan symbolises the introduction into Palestin. All Jews circumcisioned since it was forbidden to do it "in a way" (josh5:3-7), i.e. Jews have come "home". This camp is entitled by Gilgal. In the same place in 42 year from Exodus 1 months 14 day they make Easter (josh5:8-10) On (Lopukhin), comm. on josh5:11, "next day Jews should bring a gift to god: lev23:14 "никакого нового хлеба, ни сушеных зерен, ни зерен сырых не ешьте до того дня, в который принесете приношения Богу вашему: (some any [new] bread, neither dried grains, nor grains crude do not eat till that day in which will bring gifts to your God:)... "And more every other day 17th Nisan for ever cease to eat manna (josh5:11-12). Start to eat, josh5:11"And they did eat of the old corn of the land on the morrow after the passover, unleavened cakes, and parched corn in the selfsame day.", lev2:14"... of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten out of full ears." In (Veles) the ancient Russian Bible on oak boards are the same plot:" After other darkness there was a great cold, and we have gone for the midday (on the south), because there places lush."..

(DCR) josh5:11 And they ate on the next day unleavened bread of the corn of the land, and frumenty of the same year.
(LXXE) josh5:11 And they ate of the grain of the earth unleavened and new [corn].
(LXX) josh5:11 και εφαγοσαν απο του σιτου της γης ( and ate from earth wheat ) αζυμα ( unleavened ) και νεα εν ταυτη ( and new, the same ) τη ημερα ( untill this day )
(WTT) josh5:11 וַ+יֹּ֙אכְל֜וּ מֵ+עֲב֥וּר הָ+אָ֛רֶץ מִ+מָּֽחֳרַ֥ת הַ+פֶּ֖סַח מַצּ֣וֹת וְ+קָל֑וּי בְּ+עֶ֖צֶם הַ+יּ֥וֹם הַ+זֶּֽה׃ ( and ate from products of the earth since next day Passovers a feast of unleavened bread and baked in most this day )

     It is told about bread of a new crop. If year of Exodus was anniversary: lev25:11 "A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed. lev25:12... : ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field. ", it has provoked capture of Palestin.

    After harvesting grain first of all dries, that has not rotted and has not decayed at storage. Further already from dry grain, the flour is ground, porridges become. Agriculture is a settled way of life. It is possible to assume that having own back, they have adjusted delivery of a flour and ready bread in armies, and the manna they any more did not eat. In to Jordanian (to Palestinian) the earths Gilead and Jazer, 40 years lived kindreds of the Reuben and a Gad, obliged in all to help Jews till the end of conquest of Palestin. The example of education of similar infrastructures in armies of Israel for supply by water and fire wood in josh9:27 "And Joshua made them that day hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation, and for the altar of the LORD, even unto this day, in the place which he should choose." - therefore inhabitants of Gibeon have become woodcutters and water carriers for a table of oblation of God, - even till this day, on a place what would be selected by [Lord]". An example of food deliveries by the ground and to the sea for a cedar for temple construction: 1k5:9 "... from Lebanon unto the sea: and I will convey them by sea in floats unto the place that thou shalt appoint me, and will cause them to be discharged there, and thou shalt receive them: and thou shalt accomplish my desire, in giving food for my household." 1k5:11 "... twenty thousand measures of wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of pure oil: thus gave Solomon to Hiram year by year."

     Here it is written "new [bread]", on (JewEnc) V8. P. 398-399, harvesting is celebrated 15-22 days of 7th month (lev23:34) Here, probably, number of month from the agricultural beginning of year - about a spring equinox means, September (Lat. September, from septem - seven). They have attacked Palestin during harvesting, in the same days that left Egypt in 1st month of the annalistic beginning of year, 7th month from the agricultural beginning of year September (josh5:10-13, ex9:31).."

     The first in Palestin they have grasped Jericho with its supplies (josh4-19) God frightens Israel, probably, Israel's : jer5:15 "... Lo, I will bring a nation upon you from far, ..." jer5:17 "And they shall eat up thine harvest, and thy bread, which thy sons and thy daughters should eat: they shall eat up thy flocks and thine herds: they shall eat up thy vines and thy fig trees: they shall impoverish thy fenced cities, wherein thou trustedst, with the sword." Jews still at least (josh14:7) and even also wared decades of years much longer: ex23:30 "By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land." - for 40 their years became on 1820 regular warriors or on 0.3 % even less (num1, num26). Though josh11:23 "... So Joshua took the whole land, according to all that the LORD said unto Moses; and Joshua gave it for an inheritance unto Israel according to their divisions by their tribes. And the land rested from war.", when Joshua has grown very old, josh13:1-6 "......,, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed. "(BibleUnearthed) : "The book of Judges goes even further, listing important unconquered Canaanite enclaves in the territory of over half of the tribes."

     So, on the way to Palestin Israel has had time to live in the conquested regions with the flocks and even to locate in them for ever. From time to time Israel was in a march: (RST) num24:8 "... , быстрота единорога у него, пожирает народы, (speed of a unicorn at it, devours the people) ..." All as usually, wintering (Flavius.JW), attack. Means also manna they ate periodically, in fast marches when there was no possibility to cook food, after all fire wood is for this purpose necessary (jer7:18). For example in josh1:11 "... Prepare you victuals; for within three days ..." - it is obvious not on Saturday, and on war, for transition for Jordan.

     dt29:5 "And I have led you forty years in the wilderness: ...;" dt29:6 "... Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink: that ye might know that I am the LORD your God." - it is told nothing about meat. I will assume what to use stocks of bread, wines and beer aggressors could not, all it was or is hidden or poisoned, for eample : isa62:8 "... , Surely I will no more give thy corn to be meat for thine enemies; and the sons of the stranger shall not drink thy wine, for the which thou hast laboured:" The meat, wandering Jews had at themselves.

     So, in the Bible is not present categorical - "40 years ate only manna"! It is a stamp persistently inspired by miraclers of Annals.


Quails - the possible factor of 'occurrence' of manna.

to content      For the first time manna has appeared in the Bible in following circumstances: there were clouds, in the evening on wilderness the big flight of quails has flown on, there was a dew in the morning and on an earth surface have found out manna. Dew has evaporated, and manna "thawed". Evaporate manna could not: num11:8 "And the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil."Quails

      Quails resides on grain fields, arable lands and meadows. Eats at first insects, and in process of a growing passes more to seeds of cereals (digs in the earth, raking her feet), kidneys, sprouts.

     Summer hunting for a pipe - a decoy - Rus. 'manok' simulating shout of a female, begins after cleaning of bread and before flying away: has sung runs up under a network, scattered on a high grass, the hunter rises, frightening a bird, and that flying gets confused in a network. Fatten in the autumn the become heavy bird does not like to fly up and it can be caught, for example, on a sweep net... " (Flavius.JW) " ... Accordingly a little after came a vast number of quails, which is a bird more plentiful in this Arabian Gulf than any where else, flying over the sea, and hovered over them, till wearied with their laborious flight, and, indeed, as usual, flying very near to the earth, they fell down upon the Hebrews, who caught them, and satisfied their hunger with them, and supposed that this was the method whereby God
meant to supply them with food. Upon which Moses returned thanks to God for affording them his assistance so suddenly, and sooner than he had promised them.. ... " (ce)

      Distribution area: from the Western Europe to lake Baikal, from 61 North.Lat. Siberia to the North Africa and India. Wintering: Southern Europe, Transcaucasia, a great amount in Africa, India and Arabias. Separate birds in southern regions winter on a place. Fly at night, therefore appear imperceptibly. In rainy weather stop. Foggy and rainy days collect at a foot of the Caucasian ridge - it stir strong head winds. Migration has sung in September - vineyards and bushes of Southern Crimea happen are overflowed by quails. Quails - a unique flying kind among chicken.

       ex16:6 "And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At even, then ye shall know that the LORD hath brought you out from the land of Egypt: ex16:7 And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that he heareth your murmurings against the LORD: and what are we, that ye murmur against us? ex16:8 And Moses said, This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against him: and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD. ex16:9 And Moses spake unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the LORD: for he hath heard your murmurings. ex16:10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud."(ce)  (Quran). Ta Ha 20:82 (80)... At the right slope of a mount also have reduced on you a god-send and перепелов. (Krachkovsky)

     По (Flavius.JW) "... But presently after this first supply of food, he sent them a second; for as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; and Moses, when he found it stick to his hands, supposed this was also come for food from God to them. He tasted it; and perceiving that the people knew not what it was, and thought it snowed, and that it was what usually fell at that time of the year, he informed them that this dew did not fall from heaven after the manner they imagined, but came for their preservation and sustenance. So he tasted it, and gave them some of it, that they might be satisfied about what he told them. They also imitated their conductor, and were pleased with the food, for it was like honey in sweetness and pleasant taste, but like in its body to bdellium, one of the sweet spices, and in bigness equal to coriander seed. ..." (ce) Jews have seen manna in the evening falling with the sky, under the bible they have found out it only in the morning, lying on the earth. Contradictions that it fell from the sky and that they then collected it on the earth are not present, here in the bible the main contradiction "evening" - "morning"

     ex16:11 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, ex16:12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, At even ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God. ex16:13 And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host. (ce)

      Quails does not migrate in the afternoon, flights they makes at night when them it is badly visible to heavenly predators, they are heavy and slow, in flight an easy mark, hide in a grass in the afternoon. It is possible to assume that the bad weather has forced a bird to fly. The basic food of an adult bird - grain, it was involved with this ground with "manna", probably an arable land or a cereal field. In those days sowed the winter: lev26:5 "And your threshing shall reach unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach unto the sowing time: and ye shall eat your bread to the full, ...". After hailstones on fields there was a beaten barley. In search of livelihood the bird could husked ears and to dig out the earth, and there should be traces of its activity in the morning, after all quials was very many.

In the Bible it is described two episodes with quails:
1) Anticipating manna occurrence: after a camp of Elim, before Dophkah (ex16:13) where has sung in the evening have flown, but it is not described as Jews them caught. And in the morning on the earth has appeared manna.
2) Approximately a year later in a camp of Kibroth-hattaavah num11:32 where has sung have flown also Jews have eaten too much them and has much died. That manna by this time already has bothered Jews why they and asked meat is there and then mentioned also.

Manna's appearance.                

Coriander seeds (not a cereal)
Coriander seeds (not a cereal)
The cleared seeds of white millet (cereal).
The cleared seeds of white millet (cereal).
Millet in an earn
Millet in an earn
Barley malt - sprouted grain (cereal)
Barley malt - sprouted grain (cereal)
Hoarfrost on a grass (Moscow, January)
Hoarfrost on a grass (Moscow, January)

to content     Manna appearance in the Bible is described only once in ex16, the view description repeats in num11:7:
(RST) "манна же была подобна кориандровому семени, видом, как бдолах;" (manna was similar to a coriander seed, a kind, as bdolah;)
(Ostrich) манна же бяше аки семя корiiандрово есть, обличiiе его яко обличiiе бисера чиста (beads clear).
(Прага) Былаже естъ manna яко зернетка Корианъдрова Дробна (as the seed of coriander fractional), светла напогледений.
(BBE) Now the manna was like a seed of grain, like small clear drops.
(LXX) "τὸ δὲ μαννα ὡσεὶ σπέρμα κορίου ἐστίν καὶ τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ εἶδος κρυστάλλου (crystal)"
( in (RST) κρυστάλλου : bdolah - num11:7, crystal - ezk1:22, perl - isa54:12)
(ItaDio) Or la Manna era simile al seme di coriandolo; e il suo colore simile al color delle perle (in colour as perle).
(HunUj) A manna olyan volt, mint a koriandermag, hasonló az illatos gyantacsepphez ( pitch drops ).
     Coriander seed equally in the sizes, on a bit larger millet and more small wheat and barley...

   ' Bdolah ' on (BrEfr) "manna... Bdolah there is the resinous substance following from bdolah , special type of palm trees." In (Lopukhin) comm. on num11:7, "Under the assumption of one,« bdolah »(compare gen2:1) means pearls (that proves to be true also the latest judaic understanding), under the assumption of others - a sort of crystallising fragrant Arabian pitch of light-yellowish colour (LXX: τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ εἶδος κρυστάλλου, glories.: as a crystal kind)." Anyway it something light and ' pearl ' with a transparency.

     Words "lay dew" in the Jewish original (WTT), ex16:13 "... שִׁכְבַ֣ת   הַ+טַּ֔ל סָבִ֖י בַֽ+ל+מַּחֲנֶֽה׃", It is possible to translate: ' there came out a seed ' dew about a camp. In such value this word is used in (WTT) : lev15:16, lev15:18, lev19:20, lev22:4, num5:13.

      ex16:14 "And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground."

    In Synodal version it has turned out a little clumsilyn "... мелкое, круповидное, мелкое ( small, like grain, small )...".
In (WTT) we may translate so: ex16:14 "... דַּ֣ק    מְחֻסְפָּ֔ס    דַּ֥ק ..." ( (thin | ' sprouts of grains ') (twisted | fragile) (thin | ' sprouts of grains ') )
In (Vulgate) "... minutum et quasi pilo tunsum ( shattered and as (pulled out | sprouts), wound by pecking ) ...". In (Leeser) more clear "... something fine in grains ..."

     (BBE) ex16:31 "And this bread was named manna by Israel: it was white, like a grain seed"   In (WTT) It is possible translate 'bread grain' : ex16:22 " וַ+יְהִ֣י׀ בַּ+יּ֣וֹם הַ+שִּׁשִּׁ֗י לָֽקְט֥וּ (and came a sixth day, have collected) לֶ֙חֶם֙ ( grains | bread | meald ) מִשְׁנֶ֔ה שְׁנֵ֥י הָ+עֹ֖מֶ רָ+ל+אֶחָ֑ד ( double two omers on the person ) ... "

      If to consider such variants of translation it turns out: the manna was identical on the size, round, its size was about coriander seeds, by the form ' pearl ' c some transparency, in its grains there was something thin, twisted, and after quails wounded by pecking, shattered. I will remind that, mentioned in the description, hoarfrost or naled are formed usually on branches or a grass, and has the form of the crystals extended or ' of droplets ' from ice (photos see). Hoarfrost does not exclude fresh sprouts. Winter under snow bear to-18C. But pulled out on a surface, lifeless, freeze and at defrosting can quickly decay.

     On the size manna it is close to millet. The period of blossoming of millet approximately as well as of barley ex9:31 "And the flax and the barley was smitten: for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was bolled.", so also millet could meet to Jews, laid on fields. In that case a lot of grain remains in the earth and can sprout at thaw.

     ex16:16 "...: , Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents." By different calculations omer: (L.Myoller) - 2.2 l (Wikipedia) and (JewEnc) V.12. P.483-490 - 3,64 l. But to people of different age and the size the various quantity of meal is required. Here an example similar ' equalities before the law ': ex30:15 "The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, ..."
     (Lopukhin) comm. on ex16:16-18, fondly assumes that in spite of the fact that people collected different quantity, manna equally sufficed all of them, i.e. to everyone come one's way an identical portion. In rabbinic traditions the indicative example is brought: there was a dispute whose slave then by amount of the collected manna in the portions have calculated.
     Under existing modern recipes bread from sprouted grain prepares about one days. Means at emptying container in it at once grain for tomorrow's bread was put. I will assume that containers were in deficiency - all are occupied. Hence, each family ate daily same portion of such bread. In it the miracle is not present. There is only a uniform distribution of capacities and immutability of daily portions such ' manna '.
     But lev19:35-36 "Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure. 36 Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just hin, …" therefore I assume that manna was in regular intervals and is poorly enough distributed by the ground to keep within its reasonable time it was necessary to collect to everyone, this process was labour-consuming and superfluous did not collect, collected by omer - so much how much it is necessary for livelihood for days. Heb. ' omer ' - 'dispute'.

     ex16:21 "And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted." - it is clear that it could not thaw in a liquid since it cooked, from it baked wafers (num11:8, ex16:23). It is not told where it thawed on the earth or already in a pot, up to the end or only was softened.)

     In (RBS), known for the too miraclenings (see Indicative учуднения), this moment ' is cleared up ': ex16:21 "... А днем все несобранное таяло на солнце(And in the afternoon all not collected melted on the sun.)." In (BBE) ex16:21 "And they took it up morning by morning, every man as he had need: and when the sun was high it was gone." - action finished - vanished, and it is not clear, in a pot or on a broader scale? (Lithuanian) ex16:21..., tie grūdeliai laukuose sutirpdavo (..., those grains on fields melted.) - most likely, speech about putrefaction- action not finished. Sprouted grain thrown out on an earth surface will rotted or will wither. (Vulgate) ex16:21 "... liquefiebat" ( to melt | to decay)

     (BSE) "Bread. Consumption of wild-growing grain cereals in a food of the person in the form of the whole crude grains softened by soaking in water, has arisen, possibly, during a mesolit epoch. ..."

     "Millet on a flour is not processed almost, and used mainly in the form of groats. Millet cereal or the millet soup flavoured with fat, milk or vegetable oil, made ordinary food of working people of southern Russia, especially during field works. In that and other kind millet represents nutritious and healthy food like the bread, seldom capable to bore even at the daily use". (link)

     Most likely, this day Jews for themselves have opened manna: dt8:3 "... manna for your food, a thing new to you, which your fathers never saw; , ...", Which then received from grain and water. In settled life sprouted grain ministers only raw materials for beer and maker better for a flour, in the pure state it is eaten unless only with modern dandies of a healthy way of life.

     In num11:6 it is described that ~through an year it has already strongly bothered Jews, and ~through 42 years that it has ceased to appear, when Jews began to eat bread of Palestin (josh5:12), it suggests that later miracled ' bread from the sky ' was covered with marauding with which Jews traded in not ' bequeathed' by God ' the regions before Palestina.

'Rained by' ...

The drops of the dew which has frozen on a sprout.
The drops of the dew which has frozen on a sprout.
Naled on a grass
Naled on a grass

to content     (Vasmer) Rus. 'одъждити' - 'odozhditi' "to give a rain, to force raining" (In prayers to the Lord);

           Let's find out, there was a dew or a rain? Was considered that dew falls from heavens and "drops out" the same as a rain: gen27:28 "Therefore God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine:"; dt33:28 "... upon a land of corn and wine; also his heavens shall drop down dew." Joining of heavenly water and fat the earths God gave livelihood.

      (Dahl) "Dew:... Dew wets on dawns, a rain on a time....... To drizzle, from a gloom and dew ... ... send down dew, irrigates the earth...." In (Flavius.JW) "..., ; for as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; and Moses, when he found it stick to his hands, supposed this was also come for food from God to them. He tasted it; and perceiving that the people knew not what it was, and thought it snowed, and that it was what usually fell at that time of the year, he informed them that this dew did not fall from heaven after the manner they imagined, but came for their preservation and sustenance. So he tasted it, and gave them some of it, that they might be satisfied about what he told them. They also imitated their conductor, and were pleased with the food, for it was like honey in sweetness and pleasant taste, but like in its body to bdellium, one of the sweet spices, and in bigness equal to coriander seed. ...." (ce) The first part of the description is similar to very small and friable hailstones. Such hailstones are formed because of a sharp cold snap not during winter time. It speaks, rather awesome cloud: ex16:10 "..., , the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.", and flight of birds at an inopportune time: ex16:13 "... , that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: ... ".

     Then (RST) ex16:4 "..., Я одождю вам хлеб с неба (the ( bred | grain ) will be rained from the sky by me), ...", (WTT) ex16:4 "... מַמְטִ֥יר לָכֶ֛ם לֶ֖חֶם מִן־+הַ+שָּׁמָ֑יִם (... a rain for bread, from the sky...)...", it is conceived it is quite ordinary, by analogy '(be)sprinkled'... Bread from the sky. In isa30:23, for example, more prosaically: "And It will give a rain on thy seed which you will sow a field, and bread, an earth fruit, and it will be plentiful and juicy; thy flocks that day will be grazed on extensive pastures."

     (Dahl) "Odozhdjat, odozhdit fields to sprinkle, to moisten, to irrigate a rain, to allow to fall on them a rain. Odozhdi, My God, the property! Cloud odozhdila (to sprinkle) fields. Odozhdennye fields have become green...."

     Dew cannot be formed at negative temperatures, in the winter (for example, about Jerusalem: (Ostrich) 1ezr10:9 "..., и время снежно и несть мощно стояти вне (and time snowy and impossible to stay out of)." Or (Flavius.JW) "... When God sent a snow, there was a lion who slipped and fell into a certain pit, and because the pit's mouth was narrow it was evident he would perish, being enclosed with the snow; so when he saw no way to get out and save himself, he roared. ..." or when it is cloudy, before damp weather.

     By (Flavius.JW) since evening there was a drizzle or grainy hailstones, and under the Bible dew has dropped out in the morning. Anyway - a moisture. About periodicity: num11:9 "And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it." - neither snow groats nor morning dew cannot be every day 40 years with breaks on Saturdays, and cooking from grain can.

     In the Bible there are some direct expressions ' bread from the sky ' (neh9:15, ps78:24, jn6:31,32), in the New testament with 'manna' Jesus Christ is compared: jn6:41 "The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven.", as the person terrestrial is born spiritually from Spirit Sacred, and grain gives rise ' from above ' from a moisture heavenly.


to content      ex16:26 "Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. ex16:27 And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. ex16:28 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? ex16:29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. "; But work, so and gathering too, is disallowed in 7th day, for example: num15:32 "..., they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. ... ... num15:36 ... , and stoned him with stones, and he died; ...".

    ' Appearance ' of manna only on the working days - the next exaggeration of the copyist, as well as num11:9 "And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it." Is does not contradict logic: after a plentiful moisture bulks up and sprouts grain, manna may be ' collected ' or to prepare only in the working days, however thought of those who searches miracles develops in other party absolutely coming off the biblical text as a whole: the seasonal and chaotic natural phenomena, nor winter nor summer, start to occur on a week rhythm in a current of 40 years, every for the Jews having meal, what for that all the same receive it from God.

     They ate manna, when then really was hungry: neh9:15 "And gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, ...", above I have already shown that these 40 years, they have meal, this same development of thought in exaggeration means.

malt = manna.

to content     So, a bread substitute was the manna. Jews had a grain - the basic foodstuff in those days. Is it possible to eat dry grain? Nutrients in reposing live grain are curtailed into high-molecular water insoluble chains of polysaccharides, there are not enough vitamins and easy-to-receive substances in it .Sprouted wheat - malt

     But, if grain to wet, the growth mechanism, internal "factory" of grain decomposes firm and water insoluble полисахариды: the considerable part of starch passes in a solution in the form of wine, malt and usual sugars, vitamins and other easy for assimilation and biologically active substances are synthesised.  

      At first grain needs to become impregnated with a moisture, on it hours spend. For full eating readiness it is necessary for it to sprout. At temperature ~18 C, on pipping it is required from several o'clock about one days, and for malt readiness from days about several days - grain as though ' melt ', becomes soft and sweetish on taste, it is possible to eat it both to old men and children.
      It is necessary to notice especially that flavouring sensations after a long nurture by poor and insipid food strongly become aggravated also flavouring "system" of the ancient there could be a bit different, than now. For example, nowadays some people of the north like the a bit decayed meat, etc.

     Grains of cereal some tens millenaries, and even more, are the basic foodstuff of many nations, the human body well adapted for this product, receives from it almost all necessary for life and growth. Sprouted grain name eating panacea of 21 centuries - so it is nutritious and it is useful. It is possible to eat it without restrictions, so it is balanced.

Industrial producing of malt.

     Malt this sprouted grain of a rye, barley (millet, oats and grain of other cultures). Svezheubrannoe grain low-activ to germination. About 42-44 % are presoaked and in each 10 hours at 2-3 o'clock is left for breath on air. The end of presoaking is defined so: grain does not break and bent, easily pierced by a needle. The rye at low temperature, nearby 5 °C, is presoaked nearby 22 h. And longer, and at temperature 12 °C - nearby 12 h. Barley is presoaked from 48 to 72 h. If the temperature in grain rises to 18 °C, it is shovelled. The temperature in malt-place at sprouting should not be above 12 °C and the premise should be aired well. Sprouting lasts five-six days and it is considered finished when the sprout is equal to length of grain, and does not exceed one-and-a-half length of grain. Normally sprouting grain has a smell of fresh cucumbers and should not have a musty smell.

     To use high-molecular and water insoluble stocks an endosperm a germ lets out enzymes which split starch on dextrins, malt and glucose, etc. Starch bulks up, is diluted and sugared. Melting accelerated at 60-70 C, optimum temperature of sugaring 45-50 C. At low temperature starched paste dense, at high more liquid. The covered barley demands 2 days; grain, free from covers, for example, wheat, 24-36 hours. Sufficient access of air is necessary. Wet grain ready to swelling is scattered on a threshing floor. Malt mill together with grain, or add the ground malt to a flour or the dough. It strengthens action of leaven. Before mill sprouts get off.

Bread from sprouted grain - recipes :

to content     From (Mikini):
1) Grain presoak for 30 minutes Clear of a dirt, fleece from a fruit cover. Place at 8 o'clock in a barmy tub with liquid (10 %) ferment, which in an estate of fermentation about one days at temperature from + 25 to 30 C. Squeeze. The weight again ferments and is used for a batch. Bread reminds porridge, there are some the whole grains.
2) The rye cleaning, washing. Presoak for 2-4 hours at temperature 50 - 53 C. Water allow to flow down 0.5-1.5 hours slowly. Grain is rumpled to till dough consistens. 8-10 hours are leavened. It is baked at 270-290 C 2 o'clock. Bread differs from farinaceous food a little.

     Home recipe of date - manna bread from Barb Beck ( Put 4 cups of organic wheat in a plastic ice cream pail that has had holes punched in the lid. A large jar would work as well. Soak the wheat for a few minutes; then invert the container to drain most of the water. Repeat this several times as necessary. When the sprouts are ½ to ¾ the length of the grains of wheat, they are ready. In a warm house, it is possible to start the process before supper, repeat the soaking before going to bed and then again the next morning; the wheat will usually be ready that evening. If it is ready too soon, put it in the refrigerator until you can use it. Amounts: 2 cups sprouted organic wheat; flour as needed; ½ lb. dates; 1 cup raisins; ¼ tsp. cloves; ¼ tsp. cinnamon. Preheat oven to 300°F. Place the sprouted wheat in a food processor and whir it until it is ground up and pasty. Add flour until the mixture is doughy. Fold in the dates, raisins, and spices and process a little more to mix. Form into small loaves or one larger loaf. Bake for about 2½ hours. Yield: 12 servings

num11:8 "And the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil.

     In (TheComplGosp) p. 438, is cleared up a word meaning manna as follows: one of inspirers of vegetarianism is John the Baptist, but agrees mt3:4 "... ; and his meat was locusts and wild honey." ate locusts. In (LXX taste of manna: ex16:31 "... εγκρις εν μελιτι " (a flour with honey) In the ancient English bible the interesting word once is used: (Wicliffe) mt3:4 "... his mete was honysoukis, and hony of the wode.", probably, honey + soak = sweet + soaked. In apocryphal "the Gospels of the Ebionites" (GospEb) "... His food was (as is told) the wild honey which taste was similar to taste of manna and honey wafers in oil." Drawing a parallel between prophets John the Baptist, mt3:1 "those days John the Baptist comes and preaches in wilderness Judaic", and the Moses ex15:22 "... , and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water." That both in wilderness have found special food and that manna will be passed in generations: ex16:32 "... , Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt." (A uniform source of malt or ferments from a temple?), authors assume that bread heavenly has a direct bearing on bread from cereals, Gr. ακρίδα (akrida) - a locust conformably Gr. ἐγκρίς (egkris) - (a wafer | a flour) with oil and honey. Malt speeds torments and until now. It is possible to eat malt, i.e. sprouted grain directly without heat treatment. For its preparation grain, water and time are necessary.

     Jeremy Likness, the certificated expert in a food, considers (a link) that in the Bible one of the earliest recipes of bread of the sprouted grains is described: ezk4:9-17 "Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet, and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof, according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, three hundred and ninety days shalt thou eat thereof. 10 And thy meat which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day: from time to time shalt thou eat it. 11 Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of an hin: from time to time shalt thou drink. 12 And thou shalt eat it as barley cakes, and thou shalt bake it ...", the analysis has shown that products in this recipe are balanced also bread contains a lot of fiber, carbohydrates and useful fats.

     Clearly, what to prepare from grain, the true bread very simply. At least it is necessary to wet grain and to wait. Difference of modern recipes of bread that the wetted grain is processed at once by ready malt and yeast, and sprouting of grains lasts longer.

     (BSE) "Bread.... Consumption of wild-growing grain cereals in a nurture of the person in the form of the whole crude grains softened by soaking in water, has arisen, possibly, during a mesolit epoch. Grain crushing, and even later - its browning with the subsequent crushing further has begun; during this period the grain food consisted mainly from thin gruel and soups...." (ce)

     (BECA.Pokhlebkin) "coarse grinding wheat flour.... Are a little known at us and buberts ..., when semolina does not cook, and is filled in with boiling milk and hermetically closed in ware on half an hour for steaming, its volume increases usually in 3-5 times." (ce) (Dahl) "manna, or the semolina ground in groats wheat." (ce) the ground grain cooks faster, and malting ready malt. The grain kernel, that part is actually ground that sprouts - is 'enticed' - Rus.'mannit', because and there could be a name of groats.

     In Russian the etymology of a word "bread" - 'хлеб' is connected with a verb to "sup" - 'хлебать', as initially as bread was called the liquid soup. The begun to ferment soup was baked thoroughly, other bread - firm turned out.


to content     In managements on a survival ways of extraction of water in wilderness are described: 1) morning dew gathers a fabric and is squeezed out of it 2) over a hole in which the capacity for water, lays down the material bent downwards on which there is a condensation and a moisture dropped in capacity, etc. In Bibles, an example, jud6:37 ", I will put a fleece of wool in the floor; ... 38 And it was so: for he rose up early on the morrow, and thrust the fleece together, and wringed the dew out of the fleece, a bowl full of water." But just when there is manna at Jews a lack of potable water of wilderness: (Flavius.JW) "... , they were still wandering in their miserable condition, being already in want water; and if the manna should happen to fail, must then utterly perish.....".Morning dew on a web

     During hunger and an extreme lack of water, they could open again for themselves that the sprouted seed which has remained by morning after перепелов, is edible and gives extraordinary inflow of forces. ex16:16 "... , Gather of it every man according to his eating, ...", ex16:4 "... , I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no." that it was necessary to collect to everyone, speaks about that, that first manna was rare enough on the earth, however the earths with manna was much enough that not one day to feed amount of Jews. Jews also could collect morning dew for drink which cannot be collected much at once and consequently it is necessary to collect it every morning.

     (BSE) Dew: an atmospheric precipitation in the form of the droplets besieged on evening, at night and early in the morning at positive temperatures on an earth surface, subjects, plants, etc. D. is formed as a result of cooling of air and condensation of water steam on the given surface which temperature goes down below a dew-point owing to loss of heat by radiation in vesper and night hours. Especially intensively D. is formed at a fair weather and a light breeze. The amount of precipitation of D. is insignificant and averages nearby 0,1 - 0,3 mm for a night. (BED)... Arises in clear and still nights when terrestrial radiation is great. (ce) Having average dew 0,1 - 0,3 mm per squared metre are 100-300 gramme of water from square metre... Some materials, for example, a web, collect much more a moisture from air.

     From the biblical text it is possible to understand that the earth temperature was at this time positive, and weather on the night of 16th Iyar was clear.

Jews knew malt and drank beer (siker).

Sumerian Beer Recipe 3200 BC
Sumerian Beer Recipe 3200 BC

to content     Everywhere and since the ancient days there where grew up cereals should know properties of sprouted grain - malt and grain fermentation. One of the most ancient names of beer ' sikaru ' (in Sumerian).

    In some bibles siker is directly named - beer:
ex29:6 "Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink: ..." In (CRV) the Russian Biblical Society of 2003 it is already translated "Не хлебом вы питались, не вино и пиво пили (not by bread you ate, not wine and beer drank) ..."; (Ostrich) num6:3 "... сикера... оцта оловинна (... siker ... vinegar of beer ...) ..."; (ItaDio) num6:3 "... da cervogia;" (It. old - a beer) (Torah) num6:3 "... хмельного (of hop | intoxicating ) ..." (By beer manufacture it is used hop) Hop tastes bitter beer, can be therefore: isa24:9 "They shall not drink wine with a song; strong drink (LXX - σικερα ) shall be bitter to them that drink it." That that siker is beer is confirmed by known American biblical scholar Michael Houman.

       It is possible to draw a parallel with the brought raw materials and use of its products:
isa5:10 "Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah."
isa5:11 "Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink (siker - beer); that continue until night, till wine inflame them!" In 1992 I have visited Svanetiya, area of Georgia. Custom there such - morning meet beer, and then till the evening drink wine.

     It is assured, Jews knew as malt looks, added it in bread and did of it beer. Beer, onion and bread were the basic food poor and the population middle class. Further the Bible became popular in Greeks and the Romans considering beer as a low drink. Probably, therefore ' beer ' has been interpreted at all differently, in another way, only not as beer.

Word etymology 'manna'.

 to content  From Jewish ' what is it? ' - ' man hu '.

     (TS1998) ex16:15 "And the children of Yisra’ĕl saw, and they said to each other, “What is it?” For they did not know what it was. And Mosheh said to them, “It is the bread which יהוה has given you to eat. " In (Lopukhin) comm. on ex16:11-15, brings ' national ' etymology following directly from the biblical text: ' manna ' it is formed of two Jewish words: ' man ', ' ma ' - 'what' & “hu” - 'this', and means literally: ' what is it? ' However in (WTT) the word ' manna ' consists of one word "man - מָ֑ן" - "what": ex16:31 "וַ + יִּקְרְא֧וּ בֵֽית־ + יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל אֶת־ + שְׁמ֖וֹ מָ֑ן (and named a house of Israel a name 'what')..." It would be the most simple explanation which is not demanding the further trial. That that Jews, knowing malt and its properties (see above), asked - ' what is it? ', argument against the version manna = malt. Far from a native place, in the morning on the earth after a considerable quantity quails which eat seeds, husk lie down ears, dig in the earth, they have found out manna. We will assume that manna it is any cereal. (Vasmer) assumes that the cereal of "Mannik" has received the name because of its deceptive similarity to blood millet - a cultivated cereal. But mannik the plant water also grows at water, and at Jews the extreme lack of water was observed. If the give - manna plant was unfamiliar to them, in view of that it was urgently necessary to name it somehow, it and named that word which to it and called ' what '. At another alternating this word in the Jewish original (WTT) it is received ' מן־ ' - ' mines ' that means ' from, over, on '. . I'll remind that initially the text was written without vowels, therefore this version, should be mentioned at least.

     From Jewish ' manna ' - to give.

     Heb. 'man' - a gift, from 'manna' - to give - proceeding their etymology, manna an unexpected gift of heavens while the flour has come to an end, and dry grain is of little use in food, appears manna.

     From Egyptian ' mennu ' - food.

(JewEnc) P. 292, "According to George Ebers ("Durch Gosen zum Sinai," p. 236),..."

     From slavonic ' manna ' - a grass mannik (Gliceria).

     From (Vasmer) "manna - semolina", it is known that a word ' manna ' in Russian ancient: "fine crushing groats" ...". Since slavs also participated in Exodus they could name manna small seeds of any cereal, simulating the largest fractions of semolina Quite probably that the name of semolina has occurred from the name mannik (Ukr. "mannik"- manna grass) because large fractions of semolina simulate its small kernels. As, after the Moses has explained that it is bread, and Jews have all the same given the ' public ' name: ex16:31"And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: ... ", it is possible to assume that it and was ' bread ', but unusual: dt29:5"And I have led you forty years in the wilderness: ...; dt29:6 Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink: ...", manna nevertheless often is called as bread: ex16:22" ... , that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, ..." dt8:3 "And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live. " Etc. that speaks about affinity of manna to usual bread.

      It is interesting that in colloquial Italian manna means a sheaf (corn)... Though in the Bible "bread" is used often in wider concept ' food ', in a key of my reconstruction it is the suitable version as, any grain of cereals in many languages, is called in a word ' bread '. But if it so it is necessary to search further... In анг. grain both grain and bread, in It. grano both grain and bread, Pol. zboże both grain and bread ..., in heb. (WTT) isa28:28 "לֶ֣חֶם יוּדָ֔ק ..." ' לֶ֣חֶם ' {lekh'-em} - bread, food, grain. look (KJV ) isa28:28 "Bread corn is bruised; ..."

     From Rus. 'манить' - manit' - entice.

      1) See (Vasmer) 'мани́ть' ... a.luzh. 'manić' - "to deceive, attract"..." (ce) it is interesting that in modern English language manning [' mæn ɪŋ] 1) (acquisition by staff;... 2) taming - concerns to concept ' to attract '. By the way, from here English manner - behaviour in a society because manna was so sparse that everyone should collect it and skirmishes were inevitable (ex16:21)

    2) Thrown on a weather arbitrariness, winter grain can sprout enticed (Rus. 'manned')by rains and heat... Grain as though is mistaken in germination time, considering that the spring has come and he is killed by a frost...

     From a word Rus. 'маленький' - small.

     Маленький, мелкий, молотый. (Даль) (see) 'махонький', тамб. маненький. In modern Russian already there is no letter demanded for identification ' н ' - ' n ', everywhere ' л ' - ' l '. But in the western languages it is: 'мелкий, малый' : English minor; Fr. menu; It. minuto; Es. menudo; an armour. minuscularius, minutatim, minute. The form маненький as much as possible approaches us to manna, but also the form махонький also is quite good, because, in a kind "маhонький", the sound х (h) in many dialects and languages drops out often. Something turns out like "маинький", demanded skeleton ' мн ' is saved. ' manna ' means something very small, tiny, маненькое, just as ' semolina ' (it is given ейск).

     Words similar on sounding in other languages.

      Latin manabilis - penetrating (mana + bilis = derive + anger) ; Tur. mana - sense, meaning; Tur. manav & Gr. μανάβης - greengrocer; Tur. manca - forage for cats and dogs; Gr. μανία - mania; Es. manojo 1) bunch (of grass) ; hollow of the hand, handful 2) multitude, mass (of), plenty; Es. mana - spring; Fr. mana - supernatural secret force; It. informal manna - sheaf;


to content     ex16:5 ", that on the sixth day they shall prepare ... twice ... ". In the sixth day of week that not "has deteriorated", manna have boiled for the seventh idle day - Saturdays: ex16:23"...: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; ... to be kept until the morning. " ex16:24"... : and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. ", therefore it has not deteriorated.

     Dried up manna - malt, did not decay and it could be preserved very long: ex16:32 "And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. " But malt is not wonderful, as it would be desirable for believers, therefore manna till our times by them is not overgave.

Indicative miraclening.

to content   It is a lot of deliberate miraclening, distorting and additions in the ancient text in modern bibles, for example :

Have passed on the sea or on its bottom?

In all bibles till 2000 (Sources) the sea has frozen also Jews have passed on the sea as on dry (on ice!) in new translation (RBS), at 2000 published, it is already told that on a sea bottom. A bottom though even 'Red' sea, it is impassable for people and carts. God would need an additional miracle - to make even a rocky bottom and to dry up its silt, but about it in bibles it is not told words.

Manna fell from the sky?

(RST) исх16:4 "..., Я одождю вам хлеб с неба (I will send a rain on bread from the sky ) ...", (WTT) ex16:4 "... מַמְטִ֥יר לָכֶ֛ם לֶ֖חֶם מִן־+הַ+שָּׁמָ֑יִם... ( a rain for bread from the sky)...", in the modern bible of Russian Biblical Society (RBS), published in 2000, sense of the text miracled, ostensibly "bread" will fall from the sky: (RBS) ex16:4 "... "... - Я пошлю вам хлеб с неба, как дождь. ( I will send you bread from the sky, as a rain)....".

Manna has not deteriorated because have boiled or a miracle?

ex16:5 "... , that on the sixth day they shall prepare that which they bring in; and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily." In the sixth day of week that has not deteriorated, manna have boiled for the seventh idle day - Saturdays: (RST) ex16:23 "... To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; ..." ex16:24 " ...: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. " And here is the miracled text of modern translation in (WBTC) ex16:24 "So it was necessary for God, it happens because tomorrow Saturday, special day of rest in honour of the Lord...." I.e. manna has not deteriorated because so it was please for God instead of because it have boiled.

Other versions of manna.

to content

Comparison properties of ' manna ' with various ' manna terrestrial ' :
Appearance Taste Nutritiousness Heat treatment Interposition Periodicity Keeping Others
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
wht. grn. sml crp frst swt c&o eat reg. 3.6l mlt bld bkd ht. grnd scnt go sky !tree mrn sbb. wrms stnk keep mill rprdc
0 Manna of Bible yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ? yes yes yes yes yes yes yes ?
1 Malt yes yes yes yes yes yes ? yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
2 Tamarisk-tree 'sap' no no no no no no no ? ? no no yes no no ? yes yes no no yes yes no no yes yes no
3 Ash-tree sap ? ? ? ? ? yes no ? no ? no ? no no ? yes ? no no no yes no no yes yes no
4 Ice yes no yes yes yes no no no yes yes yes yes no no yes ? yes yes yes yes yes no no no yes no
5 Lichen no no no no no no no yes no no no yes yes no yes ? yes yes yes no yes no no yes yes no
6 Mannik yes yes yes yes yes yes ? yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no
7 Aliens :-) yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no

Properties of manna for the summary table:

Appearance :

1) White: ex16:31 "... , white, ..."
2) Like a grain seed: (BBE): ex16:31 "..., like a grain seed, ..."
3) Fine or small: ex16:14 "... мелкое, ..."; (WTT) " ... דַּק ..." ( ( fine | 'sprouted grain' ); (Leeser) "... something fine in grains; (Vulgate) "... minutum ..." (grinded)
4) Like a croup: ex16:14 ".., круповидное, ..."; (WTT) : "... מְחֻסְפָּ֔ס ... " ( curled | fragile ) (LXX) ex16:14 "... κόριον ..." (coriander); (LXX) ex16:14 "... κορίου ..." (a bug), but in Greek coriander - κολίανδρο!
5) Small as the hoar frost : ex16:14 "..., мелкое, как иней на земле."; (Flavius.JW) "... thought it snowed, and that it was what usually fell at that time of the year, ... "

Taste :

6) Sweet: ex16:31 "... the taste of it was like wafers made with honey. "; (Flavius.JW) "... was like honey in sweetness and pleasant taste, ..."
7) Taste as cakes with oil: (TS1998) num11:8 "...the taste of cakes baked with oil."

Nutritiousness :

8) To eat: ex16:8 "..., and in the morning bread to the full; ..."; ex16:15 "... This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat."
9) Is it possible to eat regularly : ex16:35 "... did eat manna forty years, ..."
10) Omer - 1/10 efa - 2.2 litres (BE.Brokg): ex16:16 "..., an omer for every man, ..."

Heat treatment :

11) 'Melt' in warm: исх16:21 "... : and when the sun waxed hot, it melted." Here I will mean decay.
12) Boiled : ex16:23 "... seethe; ..."
13) Baked : ex16:23 "... bake ..."; ex11:8 "... baked ..."
14) Heat treatment for keep needs: ex16:23 : bake ... seethe; ... kept until the morning."

Interposition :

15) Upon the earth (upon the grass): ex16:14 "... , upon the face of the wilderness ..."
16) Scanty scattered on the earth: ex16:21 "..., gathered it every morning, every man ; ..."
17) It is necessary to go for gathering: num11:8 "And the people went about, and gathered it, , ..."
18) Fall from the sky - (Flavius.JW) "... ; for as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; ..."
19) Not under trees

Periodicity :

20) It is preferable to 'collect' in the morning: ex16:21 "... every morning ..."
21) Lacks on Sabbaths ex16:27 "... on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. " Here I mean and a ban to gather & cook manna (grain) on Sabbaths: исх16:29 "... , let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. "

Keeping :

22) "Bred worms" ex16:20 "...; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, ...". Here I suppose that sprouts of the sprouted grain are similar to "worms"
23) Stank: ex16:20 "...; but some of them left of it until the morning, ..., and stank: ...."
24) Kept for your generations: ex16:32 "... , Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; ..." - dried.

Others :

25) Can be grounded : num11:8 "... , and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, ..."
26) People can reproduce manna in any place at any time.

'Sap' of tamarisk - tree.

 to content   (JewEnc) V.8 P.292 -294: "... Certain modern scholars attempt to identify the manna of Exodus with the exudation of the tamarisk-trees (named by Ehrenberg the "Tammarix mannifera") of the Sinaitic peninsula. The Arabs call it "mann al-sa-ma" (= "heavenly manna"), and collect it and sell it to pilgrims. It has been identified also with the exudations of other trees found in those regions. ..." (ce) ...

      (BibleEBrokg) "... The small hardened drops on a bush tamarisk which grows on the Sinai Peninsula. From punctures, which are done on tamarisk by small insects (Coccus mannibarus), sweet sap is sheded ..."Tamarisk - tree

     (BrEfr) "Manna... In some parts of the Sinai Peninsula and hitherto there is a substance, on the properties similar on biblical М. and even now named local Arabs Manna Essema - "heavenly manna". It is the whitish resinous substance having a fragrant smell and soaked from trunks of a bush tamarisk (Tamarix mannifera). Tamrisk grows in the western half of Sinai Peninsula, in stony Arabia and in area over Jordanian. Actually on the Sinai Peninsula the expiration of this resinous substance happens only in May and June, after winter rains. It has taste of honey and exudes from a bush, as glue or pitch from a cherry tree. At falling on the earth M. accepts in itself and different other elements so for its use known adaptations are required. Arabs cook it in a pot, then pass through a cloth for clarification from extraneous impurity and then merge in tins, in which it can be saved till some years. Local bedouins and the Greek friars eat it with bread as seasoning, but it never replaces bread. Such tamarisk М. has rather remote similarity with that М. which Jews, as bread ate: it is not nutritious, yes it would be and absolutely insufficiently for the people in too 2 000 000. The shower for which it would be required to 500 000 poods weekly, meanwhile as tamarisk М. even in good years gathers no more than 25 - 30 poods per year. ... In due course this monotonous food has bothered Jews so they murmured and named М. "improper food" (num21:5) or, more precisely, "too light"; but they did not starve and anyway did not die from hunger as it would be inevitable at nurture М. tamarisk which does not comprise some nitrogen....."

     In (Lopukhin) in comments on ex16:13-15 "... Between manna biblical and tamarisk there is also an essential distinction" and writes that pitch of tamarisk (Tamarix) white, like wax and does not decay. Its quantity is scanty. The area of tamarisk is limited by wilderness Sin (not biblical). Probably, such name to this pitch of a distance on biblical motives. Pitch of this tree to a biblical manna has no relation. .....

    (C.Humphreys) P. 290, write that "Чешуйчатый жучок ... Coccus mannibarus ... протыкает ствол тамарискового дерева, который тогда выделяет сладкую, клейкую субстанцию, что падает на землю и затвердевает. ...  Ботаник Боденхеймер организовывает экспедицию по манне на Синайский полуостров, узнать о манне больше, и он опубликовал свои исследования в 1947 году. Он выяснил для себя, что тамарисковые деревья будучи кусаемы насекомыми Coccus mannibarus выделяют смолистый секрет того же размера и формы, что и семена кориандра. На землю он падает белым. 'Тамарисковая манна' - застывший сок дерева тамарискаБоденхеймер съел немного и записал, "Вкус этих кристаллизированных зерен манны очень сладкий, более всего похож на мед, будучи оставлен на долгое время для затвердения." .... Библейское описание манны так хорошо совпадает с манной сегодняшней, что я верю, мы можем сказать, без особых сомнений, что manna которую Израильтяне ели в пустыне была натуральным веществом, выработанным подходящим деревом. Почему я написал "выработанным подходящим деревом"? Потому что manna вырабатывается не только Ясенем манным и Тамариском манноносным, но также и многими другими видами Тамариска и возможно другими деревьями также. ...
,,, Бедуины спешать собрать их "манну с небес" так рано утром как это возможно, перед тем как муравьи съедят ее. Боденхеймер выяснил, что муравьи неактивны до ~8:30, но после этого времени, когда земля прогреется, муравьи быстро съедают манну и все следы ее исчезают. ... В исх16:20 сказано: "Они оставили часть манны до утра, но она воскишела личинками" Возможно муравьи едят манну на Синайском полуострове, а личинки едят в очень отличающемся климате Хисмы. ... manna что была оставлена в поколения : высокое содержание сахара консервирует ее ... Тамарисковое дерево разбросано по всей пустыне этого региона, что объясняет как Израильтяне ели манну 40 лет ... " (ce)

     In the Bible in (WTT) meets a tamarisk-tree, but then this word is wanished (gen21:33) in (RST) got off, probably so that it has not turned out that Avraam cultivated it, and the majority of other versions is replaced with the neutral:
gen21:33 And Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God."
ex21:33, 1sam22:6, 1sam31:13: (WTT)... אֶ֤שֶׁ לָֽ... (tamarisk {ya '-shel}), (LXX) ... αρουραν ... (a field), (RST) a grove, an oak, an oak.

     Sap of tamarisk-tree cannot be a biblical manna for many reasons:
1) it is not balanced for a long nurture;
2) at manna occurrence trees are not mentioned;
3) it is not enough even for two Jews as it (BrEfr) to 500 kg is obtainedd. In year, i.e. ~1.4 kg in day.
4) it is impossible to bake; Etc.

manna Hedysarum & Shir-Khesht
Left: shir-khesht manna; Center: hedysarum manna;
Right: Chios Mastic (not a manna, but a resin that is also a tree sap)

     In the paper New York Times in an article "Ancient Manna on Modern Menus" by David Arnold published at June 8, 2010 and in his blog on the site there is description of similar ' manna ' from a market the cities of Yazd (Iraq), on sale as rare seasonings in the USA. Hedysarum manna is the dried sap of the camelthorn bush. It tastes like a combination of maple syrup, brown sugar, blackstrap molasses, honey, and nuts - delicious. Somebody detected a note of clams –not like eating clams, but like the aftertaste. Shir-Khesht manna is the dried sap of the cotoneaster nummilaria shrub. Shir-khesht (which means “dried-milk” in Persian) is whiter than hedysarum manna. It is sweet, with some gumminess that eventually dissolves in the mouth. Shir-khesht has a tongue-cooling effect that comes from mannitol, a sugar alcohol in this and many other mannas; the sensation is similar to menthol, without the menthol taste. It also has notes of honey and herb, and a faint bit of citrus peel.

     Professor Emeritus of Botany in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Avinoam Danin in his book 'The vegetation of Israel and neighboring countries', published on a university site, gives photos and descriptions every possible ' manna ' - exudations of plants and insects. He considers himself unsurpassed expert in this area, collects the information about ' manna ' since 1968. From its permission I bring photos and citations from his book.

White drops rich in minute air-bubbles on Haloxylon salicornicum from the Sinai desert.
White drops rich in minute air-bubbles on
Haloxylon salicornicum from the Sinai desert.
A 'weaving ant' gathers a natural sweet which was excreted by the aphid Trabutina on a thin stem of Tamarix nilotica at Enot Tzukim.
A 'weaving ant' gathers a natural sweet which was excreted by the aphid Trabutina on a thin stem of Tamarix nilotica at Enot Tzukim.
Scale insects (aphids) on an Acacia branch.
Scale insects (aphids) on an Acacia branch.
Stems of Tamarix nilotica with aphids of the genus Najacoccus. The drops are their sweet excretions. Photographed at Enot Tzukim, north-western Dead Sea area.
Stems of Tamarix nilotica with aphids of the genus
Najacoccus. The drops are their sweet excretions.
At Enot Tzukim, north-western Dead Sea area.
Remnant of the aphid in a season
when only remnants are found
Remnant of the aphid in a season
when only remnants are found
A white drop rich in minute air-bubbles on a young stem of Anabasis setifera.
A white drop rich in minute air-bubbles on a young stem of Anabasis setifera.

     About Haloxylon salicornicum : "We asked a passing Bedouin: 'What is this?' He answered: 'This is mann-rimth (rimth = the Bedouin name of H. salicornicum in most places around the Middle East) that you ate when you left Egypt.' ... In 1972 ... Upon arriving at the sandy plains near Sarabit el Khadem, we saw that many of H. salicornicum shrubs carried white drops of "manna". Impressed by this sight (Fig. 5.7.1 right) I postulated that in a year with much rainfall the H. salicornicum shrubs would have a strong fresh growth. A strong development of the insect may lead to extensive development of the white drops. ...
     About Tamarisk tree: " ... I started to write my short article on the discovery of a new source of the 'manna' that was eaten by our forefathers. A search for literature led me to the article written by Shimon Bodenheimer. He participated in an expedition of the Department of Zoology, from Jerusalem to Sinai, before 1948, and in 1947 reported the finding of 'manna' excreted by two species of scale insects (aphids) growing on Tamarix nilot ... In the summer of 2008 I went to the Dead Sea Valley with Prof. Dan Gerling who knows the secrets of the aphids. At Enot Tzukim he showed me the Najacoccus aphid that excretes transparent drops from an ovoid body (see photo) and the Trabutina aphid that excretes a snow-white material (see photo) which is consumed by the weaving ants confined to that area."
      About Acacia tree : "... A special event took place in S. Sinai where I saw a small herd of goats resting in the shade of an Acacia raddiana tree. It was an area where goats had already eaten all the green or dry plants available to them. They seemed to like licking the stones under the Acacia tree. I approached closer; the soil and stones were moist and when standing in the shade of the tree I felt minute drops 'landing' on my arms and face. I found scale insects there (see photo) on the stems of the 'dropping' Acacia. I then understood the term 'honey dew' and added it to the list of donors of available sweetness in the desert."
     About Anabasis setifera : "In additional trips I made to the Negev and to Sinai I found similar white drops on young stems of Anabasis setifera ... ... On our way to Masada we collected green stems of Anabasis setifera which had white drops similar to those on Haloxylon salicornicum (see photo). Dr. Duvdevani looked after the new treasure carefully, and two days later I got a phone call from him. He told me that "my manna findings" are very interesting, but he declared that it is not and cannot be the "Biblical manna". He advised me to search in old Muslim writings in order to solve the dilemma."
     "... informed me that he had found some comments on the manna, in dictionaries for the Koran written in the ninth century in Mesopotamia. The Koran interpreters wrote that manna is the sweet drops found on Taranjabin shrubs. Another source of information explained that Taranjabin is the local name of Alhagi graecorum which abounds in Israel and Sinai as well. One of the common scientific synonyms of this plant brings about the traditional relationship with the manna – Alhagi mannifera.
     I have seen a chapter from a book written by one of the first European visitors to Sinai (Belon, P. 1553. Voyage au Levant) in modern times. He reports there about the manna one could get in the St. Katherine Monastery in the 16th century. At that time, the term Tereniabin was used for honey dew collected in Sinai. The term Taranjabin is the Mesopotamian term and gives a hint as to the source of this information. For me, this means that the perception that manna is the honey-dew came to Sinai from Mesopotamia with the Arabic language and the Muslim belief is not information that passed from father to son starting from the Bedouin who met the wandering Children of Israel."
     "Hints from neighboring countries: I talked with my neighbor in Kiryat Hayovel, Jerusalem, who was born in Kurdistan. He told me that during his childhood there he enjoyed sweets that were called "mann es samma" = Manna of Heaven. A search in literature then gave me a hint that it's origin is honey-dew collected under trees of Quercus brantii which resembles our Tabor oak. It grows in large quantities on the Zagros mountains at the boundary zone of Iraq-Iran. Tzvi Shuraki, who lives in Jerusalem called me and told me that he has mann of similar origin that was brought from Kurdistan in recent years. Following Elbaum's TV program, Avner-Yaacov Yaron from Tel Aviv wrote to me: "As a native of Baghdad, living there until my departure for Israel. I remember that lumps of something sweet were brought from northern Iraq. After dissolving this in water and straining it, there remained various leaves resembling those of Cupressus. The lumps of material were named "mann of heaven" and a special candy was produced for the Jewish community there, named "mann el samma". People from Iraq who live in Israel still produce it under this name."Конфеты Вассальва - Манна и перепела

     ... walking in the streets of Irbid I saw a small grocery, which looked as if it was part of the Jerusalem Market at Makhane Yehuda. Among the dozens of products displayed there, were boxes decorated with a drawing of white elliptical balls of ping-pong ball size, displayed as "mann wassalwa = manna and quail – peace sweets (see photo)"

     "As for the identity of the mann – when the RAMBAM gives his explanation for miracles in the Bible he says that their origin is in events which take place in our lives, in our present natural environment; however they took place on a greater scale and left the impression of a miracle. And all these "except for the mann." Following my involvement in this matter, I prefer to consider the mann as a mysterious, inexplicable event, and not to fall captive to the easy solution taken by interpreters of the Koran, who tried to make 'our' mann 'theirs.'"

    The Israeli professor - biologist Avinoam Danin has not found ' biblical manna ' in region, but believes in it as in a miracle and defends the Jewish priority in this miracle. As also the Israeli professor - the archeologist Israel Finkelstein who has not found archaeological acknowledgement to biblical events in the earth of region, believes that the Bible is created in this region and defends the Jewish priority over authorship of the Bible.

Ash-tree sap.

 to content   (C.Humphreys) стр. 289, Says that : Ash-tree semolina... The bark is made an incision also sweet sap allocated and stiffens in flakes. These sweet flakes are called as manna, and are on sale as a delicacy.Ясен манный - его сок называется манной

     (KADisp1898) Manna (U. S. P.)—Manna, "The concrete, saccharine exudation of Fraxinus Ornus, Linné (Ornus europaea, Persoon). ... The manna tree is a native of most parts of southern Europe. The official part is the sap of the tree, known in commerce as "manna." Manna issues from the tree in part spontaneously from fissures, partly from punctures produced by an insect, but more generally from incisions daily made in the tree (one above another) during the warm summer months, from which the viscous, brown, bluish fluorescent, bitterish sap flows out, and speedily hardens, losing thereby its bitterness and becoming white. These incisions are repeated annually, and alternately upon opposite sides of the tree, each season, so long as it yields manna. One tree may yield manna for 20 years. There are several varieties of manna, which chiefly differ from one another in quality according to the season and mode of gathering. The Sicily manna (manna geraci) is the most esteemed. It is also called flake manna (manna cannulata)—large and small flake—and is procured from the incisions on the upper part of the tree, during the height of the season, when the sap flows vigorously. It is collected on straws or twigs, etc., upon which it concretes in stalactitic masses. Long keeping deepens its color. Its fracture is somewhat crystalline, due to the presence of crystals of mannite. The U. S. P. describes good manna as "in flattish, somewhat 3-edged pieces, occasionally 20 Cm.(8 inches) long and 5 Cm. (2 inches) broad, usually smaller; friable; externally yellowish-white; internally white, porous, and crystalline; or in fragments of different sizes, brownish-white and somewhat Ash-tree juice mannaglutinous on the surface, internally white and crystalline; odor honey-like; taste sweet, slightly bitter and faintly acrid. .... Pieces of manna picked up from the ground form part of this sort of manna. It is in masses of a similar color to, but of less size than the flake manna—joined by a soft, adhesive substance of a dark, yellowish-brown color; its taste is rather unpleasant. A third variety, termed fat manna, is gathered in the latter part of autumn, when the season is wet and cool, and, in consequence of which, it does not readily concrete. A fatty manna is also said to be procured from the incision made in the lower part of the tree, during the warmer months. Fat manna is less solid than the preceding varieties, adhesive, not brittle, of a yellowish-red or yellowish-brown color, of a strong honey odor, a mawkish, sweet, unpleasant taste, and mixed with sand, pieces of bark, and other foreign substances. There is not so much mannite present in this grade, but more of sugar, gum, etc. This is the kind of manna rejected by the Pharmacopoeia.

Manna softens with the heat of the hand, melts at a temperature somewhat higher, and is inflammable, burning with a blue flame, throwing out yellow sparks. Pure manna is almost entirely dissolved in 3 parts of water at 15.5° C. (60° F.), and 1 part at 100° C. (212° F.). From the latter solution it is deposited, on cooling, in crystalline forms. In consequence of the sugar contained in manna it is capable of undergoing fermentation.

Chemical Composition.—The principal constituent of pure manna is mannite (C6H8[OH]6), 90 per cent, with 11 per cent of sugar and about 0.75 per cent of impurities (Flückiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891, p. 27). Inferior sorts of manna contain mucilage, cane-sugar, laevulose, dextrin (Buignet, 1868; doubted by Flückiger), bitter substances soluble in ether, and fraxin (C16H18O10), a fluorescent glucosid resembling aesculin.

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Manna is nutritive in small doses, and mildly laxative in large ones. It operates without causing any local excitement or uneasiness, and is useful as a laxative for young infants, children, females during pregnancy and immediately after, inflammation of the abdominal viscera, disorders of childhood, hemorrhoids, costiveness, etc. It is accredited with cholagogue properties, and has a somewhat beneficial action upon the respiratory tract. It is commonly added to other purgatives to improve their flavor, as well as to increase the purgative effect. One or 2 ounces may be taken by an adult; 1, 2, or 3 drachms by a child, according to its age. Two or 3 parts of manna to 1 of senna maybe made into a laxative infusion for children. Sometimes manna causes flatulency and griping, which may be obviated by combining it with any grateful warm aromatic."

Ash-tree sap cannot be a biblical manna for many reasons:
1) as (LEDBrEfr) : "the manna contains: 10-15 % of water, 3-6 % of ashes, 25-80 % mannitol, sugar, dextrins and slime;", maximum permissible norm of such manna, starting with (Wikipedia) Mannitol, "In oral doses larger than 20 g, mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative, and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children", nearby 25-80 gramme, and at shrinkage and that is less that it is obviously not enough for a nurture, besides such semolina is not balanced on proteins, fats and carbohydrates food, and is unsuitable for the long use;
2) at manna occurrence trees are not mentioned;
3) it is not produced inamounty sufficient for Jews of Exodus ;
4) the hardened ash-tree sap has other form and factiousness;


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Манна - снежная крупа
Ice groats
Иней на ростках
Hoarfrost on sprouts

     In (NC.CHRON6) chapter 3.1.4, 4.4.4, authors, refer that in Russian 'manna' means ' small groats ' and, ostensibly, is primary in the text and was meant, but in sense of snow, and the late editor having forgotten initial sense, has used already ' bread ' and ' a flour '. Mentioned (Flavius.JW) " ... ; for as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; and Moses, when he found it stick to his hands, supposed this was also come for food from God to them. He tasted it; ... , he informed them that this dew did not fall from heaven after the manner they imagined, but came for their preservation and sustenance. ... it was like honey in sweetness and pleasant taste, but like in its body to bdellium, one of the sweet spices, and in bigness equal to coriander seed. ... ..." (ce)

     Hailstones, snow groats, naled, dew as addition, are possible, in an individual or not regular case of an 'appropriation of manna': it is water, plus seeds of cereals nutrients.

But also on 6th put after a god-send appropriation in wilderness Sin (ex16), Jews yet did not test an extreme lack of water because it was even on what to boil manna (ex16:23)

Besides chapter (ex17), about a next camp, bodily dedicated to a water lack. The Moses has obtained water ' from a stone ': ex17:6 "...; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. ..." In num21:5 "...: for there is no bread, neither is there any water; and our soul loatheth this light bread."

The bible does not confirm picturesque the description (Flavius.JW) mana falling from the sky, under the Bible Jews found manna on the earth. However the daily portion of the ' manna ' is close to daily requirement for water.

But the version ' snow groats ' is insolvent for many reasons:
1) snow not meal, it is impossible even to name conditional bread;
2) snow is senseless for grinding;
3) snow it is impossible to fry, to bake from it wafers;
4) snow has no taste;
5) it is not keeped by years;
6) there are no mentions of seasonal faults with a god-send which should be with snow - summer;



to content    The lichen edible - Lichen esculentus, was described for the first time by Peter Simon Pallas (Wikipedia) Лишайник съедобный - Lichen esculentuswhich during the travel, probably, observed Aspicilia edible and in lake Elton vicinities, «Cossacks name this lichen« Earthen bread »and tell that those people who on hunting and is mistaken in steppe, eat this lichen and keep life». (Wikipedia) "oxalic acid and its salts are toxic", therefore for a nurture, especially long, is dangerous.
( Aspicilia edible - Aspicilia esculenta (Pall.) Flag.
(= Lecanora esculenta Eversm.) In the form of 1-4 sm of lumps clayey- or ash-grey colour. Distribution. In Crimea, in the southeast of the European part, in Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Kazakhstan. It is edible, contains to 65 % oxalic calcium - sour, not sweet, gives the earth. For carrying over the gale is necessary. Being turned off in lumps grasps in itself earth slices. Does not "thaw" and does not decay.

The lichen cannot be a biblical manna for many reasons:
1) toxicity
2) sour taste
3) dark colour
4) other the form and the size


to content     (BSE) Манник (Glyceria)  род растений семейства злаков. ... Около 40 видов, Манник наплывной - Gliceria fluitans - маннаглавным образом в умеренном и холодном поясах Северного полушария, а также в Южной Америке и Австралии. В СССР около 15 видов; произрастают по избыточно увлажнённым иловатым местам, поймам рек, берегам водоёмов, травяным болотам. М. плавающий (G. fluitans) — пастбищное и сенокосное растение; зерновки его иногда употреблялись в пищу под названием manna (отсюда и название); служит кормом для домашней птицы и рыб. (ce)

     Является водным растением (Wikipedia), семена его могут быть использованы в качестве манны, т.к. это тоже хлеб (во время засухи: 1ц18:5 "... пойди по земле ко всем источникам водным и ко всем потокам на земле, не найдем ли где травы, чтобы нам прокормить коней и лошаков и не лишиться скота").

     (Даль) ссылка, "Собираемое в южной России (размахами сита по росистой траве) семя травы манник, Glyceria fluitans, манная крупа, manna травяная, из которой варят кашу."

     (Vasmer) ... ма́нник – растение "Glyceria fluitans" ... ср. русск. мани́ть, обма́н; при этом имелось в виду обманчивое сходство манника и кровяного проса. ... "

Не исключаю что манник мог быть эпизодом в пропитании евреев, но ввиду ограниченности его распространения, необходимости избытка влаги к 40-летней манне он отношения не имеет.


Magic mushroom

(Wikipedia) "A number of ethnomycologists such as R. Gordon Wasson, John Marco Allegro, and Terence McKenna, have suggested that most characteristics of manna are similar to that of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms, notorious breeding grounds for insects, which decompose rapidly. These peculiar fungi naturally produce a number of molecules that resemble human neurochemicals, and first appear as small fibres (mycelia) that resemble hoarfrost. Psilocybin, a molecule in the Psilocybe cubensis, has shown to produce spiritual experiences, with "personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later"[17]. In a Psilocybin study from 2006 one-third of the participants reported that the experience was the single most spiritually significant moment of their lives and more than two-thirds reported it was among the top five most spiritually significant experiences. A side-effect from Psilocybin consumption is the loss of appetite [18]. This speculation (also paralleled in Philip K. Dick's posthumously published The Transmigration of Timothy Archer) is supported in a wider cultural context when compared with the praise of Haoma in the Rigveda, Mexican praise of teonanácatl, the peyote sacrament of the Native American Church, and the Holy Ayahuasca used in the ritual of the União do Vegetal and Santo Daime."


to content     The wonderful version does not demand proofs and does not give in to a refutation. Any ' the kind soul ' instead of that in 7th day Jews did not get new manna, only because on Sabbath it is impossible to work and cook it, has made the small amendment while translating or copying so that they did not gather manna on Sabbath because it not ' fell from the sky ' - and here because of such small amendment to the text, hundred years, hundred wise men a head will break about that manna version. And though it contradicts the basic text of the Bible, for example, that when dew then descended and manna but then dew did not descend on Sabbaths descended and descended 40 years neither winter or summer... Etc., for example, neh9:21 "Yea, forty years didst thou sustain them in the wilderness, so that they lacked nothing; their clothes waxed not old, and their feet swelled not." - It is clear that this text is not contradicted by understanding that Jews did, bought... Got new clothes, however the person ' the believer ' necessarily represents it so what exactly initial clothes of 40 years did not decay... It is possible to bring other examples miraclening manna, but it is senseless, because the wonderful version living in souls ' believers ' is incontestable, and for people thinking it ' the refutation ' is not required.

     In the Jewish Encyclopaedia (JewEnc) V. 8 P.292-294, The following miraclening from the Jewish tradition concerning manna is brought : 1) On Friday morning the portions were double, for the manna could not be found on Sabbath. The manna was eaten the day it was gathered; if it were left until the following morning it corrupted and bred worms, though the manna gathered on Friday and kept for the Sabbath remained fresh.; 2) It continued to descend during the forty years the Israelites were in the wilderness, except Sabbaths; 3) num21:5 makes it appear that manna was the only food of the Israelites while they were in the wilderness; 4) Manna was one of the ten things created on the first Friday of Creation, in the twilight . 5) According to Zabdi b. Levi, the manna which fell near the camp of the Israelites in the wilderness covered an area two thousand cubits square; 6) It remained on the ground until four hours after sunrise, when it melted. 7) It fell to a depth of sixty cubits, or, according to Isi b. Akiba (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxiii.), of fifty cubits; 8) The quantity which fell every day would have sufficed to nourish the people for two thousand years.; 9) The Israelites could not be encumbered with its burden; they needed warm food every day, and the manna was warm when it fell; 10) In order that the manna might remain clean, a north wind first swept the ground, and then rains washed it. Then, after the ground had been covered with a layer of dew, the manna fell upon it, and was itself then covered with dew (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 3; comp. Sifre, Num. 89).; 11) It so fell that the righteous had no trouble in gathering it, finding it at the doors of their tents; those of less firm belief had to go farther for it; the wicked had to go far from the camp to gather it (Yoma 75a). ; 12) (Tan., Beshallaḥ, 22): The diligent went out into the field to gather the manna; the less diligent went just outside their tents; but the indolent lay in their sleeping-places while the manna fell into their outstretched hands.; 13) Created only for the children of Israel, the heathen could not secure the smallest quantity of it, for when one stretched out his hand to pick it up, it slipped from his grasp (Sifre, Deut. 313; Midr. Abkir, in Yalḳ., Ex. 258); 14) It tasted bitter to the heathen (Tan., l.c.).;Евреи собирающие манну небесную в пустыне15) The melting of the manna formed streams which furnished drink to many deer and other animals, and when those animals were afterward killed by heathen, the latter recognized in the meat the taste of the manna (Tan., l.c.; comp. Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to Ex. xvi. 21). It was only in this way that the heathen could know the true taste of the manna, for the water itself was bitter to them (Tan., l.c.). ; 16) With the manna precious stones fell every morning (Yoma l.c.); 17) The manna was adapted to the taste of each individual; to the adult it tasted like the food of the adult, while to the sucking child it tasted like the milk of its mother's breasts.; 18) By wishing, one could taste in the manna anything desired, whether fowl or fruit; thus the statement that the people ground it, or pounded it, and then baked it (Num. xi. 8), is only figurative, for if one so wished it tasted like food made of flour ground or pounded, baked or cooked.; 19) The wicked were compelled to grind it and prepare it until it was fit for food, while for the righteous it was ground by angels before it fell from heaven.; 20) The manna exhaled a fragrant odor, and during the forty years the Israelites wandered in the wilderness it served the women as perfume.; 21) Being a heavenly food, the manna contained nutritious matter only, without any waste products, so that during the whole time the Israelites lived upon it the grossest office of the body remained unexercised. ; 22) The quantity collected made exactly one omer for every person, whether one collected much or little. A miracle attended the collecting of the manna, in that the number of omers gathered by each family was found to correspond to the number of its members. This rendered the manna useful in solving most difficult problems. For instance, when two people came before Moses, one accusing the other of having stolen his slave and the other claiming to have bought the slave, Moses deferred his decision to the following morning, when the number of omers of manna in their respective houses showed to whom the slave belonged. In this way many otherwise inextricable complications could be unraveled (Yoma 75a).; 23) When they arrived at Gilgal, on the 14th of Nisan, and began to eat the grain grown there, the manna ceased to fall. (after death of Moses); 24) The manna is reserved as the future food of the righteous, for which purpose it is ground in a mill situated in Sheḥaḳim, the third heaven (Ḥag. 12b; Tan., l.c.); 25) It was so conspicuous that all the kings of the East and West could see it from their palaces (Yoma 76a; Tan., Beshallaḥ, 21)..


Artificial kinds of manna:
Manna Bukhara - the condensed sap of grapes.
Manna, or semolina - wheat ground in groats.

The conclusion.

to content     Crowds of Jews driven by accident have moved out to wander. The crop was gone, the cattle has fallen. Leaving for ever and ever, they have taken away the last from with whom together there lived generations, dooming them to  destruction. But it has not saved Jews from hunger, in a month of a campaign, in wilderness, at them the flour has come to an end, urging them to pass to grain. During this moment it "appeared" manna. But dry grain to eat hard. In a way they did not have a possibility to grind a flour. At times there was no time to cook, was no wood to cook. A case opened again for them a ' sprouted grain ' that it is suitable in food even to old men and children that it gives extraordinary inflow of forces for such simple food. That though somehow to become impregnated, on the way Jews marauded, having installed horror in the people. They could not stop somewhere at once, too numerous they were. To survive them it was necessary to grasp continuously the foodstuffs in coming across settlements. They plundered, killed, selected jewelry, products. . In day they needed to eat a village, in style type: num14:9 "... , neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us:...", therefore they were divided on ' regiments '. The part of Jews, with slowly going cattle, settled on the way, using the best places smoothed out from indigenous population. So they rushed around and grew roots about 40 years in sparsely populated places - the wilderness, not able to render to them of due resistance. Has come ' anniversary of anniversaries ' 50th anniversary. Under the Jewish laws this year, in an anniversary, the slave set free from slavery, the property comes back to the owner. Having collected the strength, from wilderness Jews have undertaken a campaign for capture rather populated the fertile earths, Palestin. 50th anniversary has served them as an occasion and the justifying to grasp huge territories, to make over the people living there a genocide (dt4:1, dt11:23, dt12:29, dt20:16-17, num31:7, josh12:6, etc.)

      Having entered into Palestin, they have formed an infrastructure supplying them that so hitherto did not suffice (num15:32): water and fire wood (josh9:27). In (Myakotin.PH) P. 92, in 1667 priesthood named Palestin: "... All-that our Palestin, both Serbi, and Albanas, and Volohs, both Romans, and Poles...", i.e. present Serbia, Albania, Romania, Italy, Germany, Poland... These are places where many woods so it is a lot of fuel for a bread batch. Instead of the use of bread from soaked grain they started to eat bread from the dough (num15:18-20).

     A myth that manna fed them 40 years is thought up to cover marauding with which Jews and became impregnated 40 years in wilderness in the earth which did not belong to them. While they have entered into Palestin mythical ' manna from the sky ' has ceased to feed Jews, they have openly declared - we eat bread of the earth belonging to us.

"Manna" not that other as ordinary miracling of Bibles, along with others (see Indicative miraclenings). Is a miracle that Jews in hunger have become impregnated with what remains on fields? Is a miracle that Jews have learnt to eat sprouted grain - the unique way of a nurture with grain in a fast march? The miracle because they on the whole considered themselves doomed is visible. Their spirit needed to be supported miracles, continuous comprehension of their direct affinity to God through the Moses.

Probably, already miracled the primary Bible text would allow the modern reader who has been so widely formed, to see and these naive in his opinion attempts primary miraclening and a reality hidden for them, but all subsequent commentators and editors many generations worked over that in process of increase in universal erudition of people more and more miracling the Bible text is it is possible to observe even last years.

I consider the Bible as the sacred book for myself not because to me so have told to think and believe, that is why that I know that it is Annals of my ancestors - earth dwellers that my ancestors have done the utmost to survive and to give me in the future a help hand through books in which they have left knowledge for life and proof belief in this tested knowledge. Let this knowledge which in what has become outdated, but in it there is a kernel which remains immutable for ever and will be enveloped and be interfaced only to new knowledge. Everyones overmiracling facts of life with what ' good ' intentions would not be made, impractical and sooner or later their peel disappears.

It is always dangerous to open, that is hidden for silly and not co-ordinated Bible overmiraclenings. Far-reaching, reasonings can be declared the authorities (church and military) "politically incorrect" and extremistic.

So, what It was - ' manna '?! I will answer with words of God gen1:29 "..., I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, ..."


to content
- To Fomenko Anatoly Timofeevich and
To Nosovsky Gleb Vladimirovich
(Moscow) - for inspiring;
I have read all books FiN (Fomenko and Nosovsky) (2008) published on their site - result of almost forty-year work and not less thorough works of their numerous predecessors, the honorary academician of the USSR N.A.Morozov, ingenious Isaac Newton and others. Having begun with "The foundation of history" and "Methods", personally having rechecked arguments of scientists and having convinced of validity, I, already with trust, continued and then further read, then more respect. They did not impose the point of view, gave references to primary sources, suggesting to do conclusions. If doubted, did not hesitate to speak about it.
      Результаты моих исследований в частностях не совпадают с их выводами, и то, что они опубликовали мою работу в своем сборнике статей, говорит о том, что они настоящие ученые, открытые к полемике.
      Shifted by their most interesting historical researches, itself has started to work little by little. All my draughts: . That they clear up in others zeal to the Science, I consider as conclusive good, let even they in all will be not right.

- Домашенко Татьяне Васильевне (г. Ессентуки, учитель русского языка и литературы, - за корректуру;
- Винокурову Алексею - за перевод Септуагинты на русский язык;
- Тарасу Свитлыку (Украина, г. Тернополь,
и Клименковскому Юрию ( г. Санкт-Петербург, за перевод книги "Раскопанная Библия" на русский язык;


Thanks for support and attention! Author, Poltavsky Sasha
357070, village Kursavka, e-mail:, cell +7 (918) 868-22-68

Stavropol 1-24.01.2012 г.
Errors: :



(A part in English and full in Russian)

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1 The Russian Biblical Society - the Bible
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14 'Popol Buh' (in Russian)
15 Mahabharata. Books of a Great exode (in Russian)
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Инструменты и справочники

1. Астропроцессор ZET 8 Lite (автор Анатолий Зайцев)
2 Энциклопедия Брокгауза и Ефрона
  Библейская энциклопедия Брокгауза
3 Большая Советская Энциклопедия
4 Большая Энциклопедия "Кирилла и Мефодия"
  Толковая Библия или комментарий на все книги Св.Писания Ветхого и Нового Заветов. А. П. Лопухина. Lopukhin      

В начало страницы к содержанию страницы.

Другие источники

1. The Annals of The World by Rev. James Ussher
у меня
8 "Крепость драгоценностей" Герцен А.Г., Могаричев Ю.М. Крепость драгоценностей  
10 The Book of Job. From history of biblical text. M.I. Rizhsky.
  11 Mb+10 Mb  
12 "The Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts" Israel Finkelstein and Nile Asher Zilberman BibleUnearthed  
17 Mb
  "The Complete Gospels" Miller, Robert J TheComplGosp   ссылка  
  The Jewish Encyclopedia
  a link  
  "Дело об Исходе" Леннарт Мёллер Л.Мёллер   ссылка  
  "The Book of Jubilee" BkJubilee   ссылка  
  The paper New York Times. Ancient Manna on Modern Menus. By David Arnold. Published: June 8, 2010 NYTimes.2010/06/09/manna   a link  
  "The vegetation of Israel and neighboring countries" by Avinoam Danin A.Danin   a link  
  King's American Dispensatory KADisp1898   1898 a link by Harvey Wickes Felter. and John Uri Lloyd.
  "The protopriest Habakkuk" V.A.Myakotin Myakotin.PH     a link  

Books of a scientific trend "New Chronology"
  "Mathematical chronology of biblical events". Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. NC.BIBL-1 1997 a link Moscow, Science, 1997.
  History: " Fiction or Science?" (in English) NC.CHRON1 2003 a link Translation of 1st volume "Chronology". 2003
  "Stars", "Stars of Zodiac". Kalashnikov V.V., Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T., Fomenko T.N. NC.CHRON3 2006 a link Moscow, РИМИС, 2006.
  "Biblical Russia". Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. NC.CHRON6 2004 a link Moscow, РИМИС, 2004.
  "New chronology of Egypt". Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. NC.Egypt-1 2002 a link Moscow, "Вече", 2002.
  "New chronology of Egypt". Nosovsky G.V., Fomenko A.T. NC.Egypt-2 2003

a link

Moscow, "Вече", 2003.


to content

- 1:15 or ex1:15- a reference to a verse 1:15 of The Book of Exodus of King James version of Bible;
- (green colour) - comments or translating.
- (blue colour) - abbreviations of sources, their list above in Sources
- (red coloure) - marked words on which it is necessary to pay special attention
- (black coloure) - words in the comparison, simply marked words are noted.

Abbreviatures of Bible books :

Old Testament

Genesis Gen
Exodus Ex
Leviticus Lev
Numbers Num
Deuteronomy Dt
Joshua Josh
Judges Jdg
Ruth Rth
1 Samuel 1Sam
2 Samuel 2Sam
1 Kings 1K
2 Kings 2K
1 Chronicles 1Ch
2 Chronicles 2Ch
Ezra Ezr
Nehemiah Neh
Esther Es
Job Job
Psalm Ps
Proverbs Prv
Ecclesiastes Ec
Song of Solomon Song
Isaiah Isa
Jeremiah Jer
Lamentations Lam
Ezekiel Ezk
Daniel Dan
Hosea Hos
Joel Jl
Amos Am
Obadiah Ob
Jonah Jnh
Micah Mic
Nahum Nah
Habakkuk Hab
Zephaniah Zeph
Haggai Hag
Zechariah Zech
Malachi Mal
Tobit Tob
Judith Jdth
Additions to Esther Add Esth
Wisdom of Solomon Ws
Sirach Sir
Baruch Bar
Letter of Jeremiah Ltr Jer
Song of Three Youths Song of 3
Susanna Sus
Bel and the Dragon Bel
1 Maccabees 1Mac
2 Maccabees 2Mac
1 Esdras 1Esdr
Prayer of Manasseh Pr Man
Additional Psalm Add Ps
3 Maccabees 3Mac
2 Esdras 2Esdr
4 Maccabees 4Mac
Ode Ode
Psalms of Solomon PsSol
Epistle to the Laodiceans Laodic

New Testament

Matthew            Mt
Mark     Mrk
Luke      Luk
John      Jhn
Acts       Acts
Romans               Rom
1 Corinthians   1Cor
2 Corinthians     2Cor
Galatians             Gal
Ephesians           Eph
Philippians          Phil
Colossians          Col
1 Thessalonians                 1Thess
2 Thessalonians                 2Thess
1 Timothy           1Tim
2 Timothy           2Tim
Titus      Tit
Philemon            Phm
Hebrews             Heb
James   Jm
1 Peter 1Pet
2 Peter 2Pet
1 John   1Jhn
2 John   2Jhn
3 John   3Jhn
Jude      Jud
Revelation          Rev